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Table 2 Demographic characteristic of COVID-19 patients, (n = 4043)

From: The landscape of antibiotic usage among COVID-19 patients in the early phase of pandemic: a Malaysian national perspective

Variables   n (%) Antibiotic use p-value*
Age  ≤ 65 years 3720 (92.0) 572 (15.4)  < 0.001
 > 65 years, median (IQR) 323 (8.0) 126 (38.9)
Gender Male 2628 (65.0) 488 (18.6)  < 0.001
Female 1415 (35.0) 21 (14.8)
Ethnicity Malay 3119 (77.2) 498 (16.0)  < 0.001a
Chinese 333 (8.2) 67 (20.1)
Indian 115 (2.8) 18 (15.7)
Orang Asli Semenanjung 4 (0.1) 0 (0.0)
Bumiputera Sabah 191 (4.7) 64 (33.5)
Bumiputera Sarawak 281 (7.0) 51 (18.1)
Number of comorbidities No comorbidity 2549 258 (10.1)  < 0.001b
1 834 (20.6) 205 (24.6)
2 373 (9.2) 120 (32.2)
3 194 (4.8) 74 (38.1)
4 68 (1.7) 31 (45.6)
5 20 (0.5) 7 (35.0)
6 4 (0.1) 2 (50.0)
7 1 (0.02) 1 (100.0)
Types of comorbidities Hypertension 824 (20.4) 270 (32.8)  < 0.001
Diabetes mellitus 517 (12.8) 204 (39.5)  < 0.001
Dyslipidaemia 215 (5.3) 49 (22.8) 0.028
Asthma 176 (4.4) 35 (19.9) 0.347
Chronic cardiac disease 172 (4.3) 64 (37.2)  < 0.001
Chronic kidney disease 92 (2.3) 60 (65.2)  < 0.001
Obesity 73 (1.8) 19 (26.0) 0.046
Malignant neoplasm 40 (1.0) 15 (37.5) 0.001
Rheumatologic disorder 33 (0.8) 13 (39.4) 0.001
Chronic neurological disorder 32 (0.8) 12 (37.5) 0.002
Chronic pulmonary disease 28 (0.7) 19 (67.9)  < 0.001
Liver disease 10 (0.3) 2 (20.0) 0.822
Chronic hematologic disease 7 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 0.103#
AIDS/HIV 7 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 0.103
Dementia 4 (0.1) 1 (25.0) 0.697#
Smoking Smoker 500 (12.4) 53 (16.9) 0.851
Non-smoker 3543 (87.6) 645 (17.3)
  1. IQR interquartile range; AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; HIV human immunodeficiency virus
  2. a Chi-square analysis of Malay and non-Malay ethnicity
  3. b Chi-square analysis of no comorbidity vs 1, 2 and more than 2 comorbidities
  4. * Chi-Square test
  5. # Fisher's Exact test