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Table 3 Regulatory environment interactions and regulatory characteristics of OTCMS facilities across selected MDAs and rural–urban locations (n = 186)

From: Regulatory compliance among over-the-counter medicine sellers facilities within the Upper East Region of Ghana

Variables Municipalities and districts (MDA’S) Facilitiesf   Location  
BM (N = 25) GT (N = 25) KNW (N = 23) KNM (N = 19) Bo (N = 20) P (N = 11) BW (N = 11) B (N = 52) p-value Urban (N = 101) Rural (N = 85) p-value
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Premises characteristics
 State of repair 7 (28.0) 1 (4.0) 2 (8.7) 7 (36.8) 4 (20.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (27.3) 16 (30.8) 0.0026 31( 30.7) 9 (10.6) 0.001
 Durability of floor and ease of cleaning 14 (56.0) 6 (24.0) 10 (43.5) 13 (68.4) 3 (15.0) 2 (18.2) 3 (27.3) 33 (63.5)  < 0.001 61 (60.4) 25 (27.1) 0.001
 Size of dispensing area appropriate 19 (76.0) 23 (92.0) 20 (87.0) 17 (89.5) 15 (75.0) 9 (81.9) 10 (90.9) 43 (82.7) 0.706 84 (83.2) 72 (84.7) 0.776
 Design of dispensing area appropriate 23 (92.0) 25 (100.0) 19 (82.6) 18 (94.7) 19 (95.0) 8 (72.7) 11 (100.0) 44 (84.6) 0.114 90 (89.1) 77 (90.6) 0.74
Staff characteristics
 Owner of facility available on premises 9 (36.0) 13 (52.0) 10 (43.5) 6 (31.6) 9 (45.0) 4 (36.4) 2 (18.2) 18 (36.4) 0.629 38 (37.6) 33 (38.8) 0.867
 Staff trained in less than a year 21 (84.0) 13 (52.0) 13 (56.5) 10 (52.6) 13 (65.0) 6 (54.6) 7 (63.6) 34 (65.4) 0.35 71 (70.3) 46 (54.1) 0.023
 Staff knowledge on regulatory lawa 0 (0.0) 1 (4.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (3.8) 0.34 2 (2.0) 1 (1.2) 0.586
Material and equipment characteristics
 Reference books available on premises 13 (52.0) 13 (52.0) 11 (47.8) 8 (42.1) 8 (40.0) 4 (36.4) 4 (36.4) 28 (53.8) 0.885 52 (51.5) 37 (43.5) 0.279
Practice-related characteristics
 Retention of supplier's invoices and receipts 17 (68.0) 10 (40.0) 18 (78.3) 9 (47.1) 11 (27.3) 3 (27.3) 5 (45.5) 39 (75.0) 0.005 69 (68.3) 37 (43.5) 0.002
 Appropriate signboard mounted 22 (88.0) 10 (40.0) 8 (34.8) 6 (31.6) 10 (50.0) 6 (54.5) 4 (36.4) 39 (75.0)  < 0.001 68 (67.3) 37 (43.5) 0.002
 Stocking POM (Class A) 21 (84.0) 23 (92.0) 22 (95.7) 18 (94.7) 20 (100.0) 11 (100.0) 11 (100.0) 49 (94.2) 0.376 95 (94.1) 80 (94.1) 0.987
 Stocking Pharmacy medicines (Class B) 25 (100.0) 25 (100.0) 23 (100.0) 19 (100.0) 20 (100.0) 11 (100.0) 11 (100.0) 52 (100.0)   101 (100.0) 85 (100.0)  
 Stocking of non-drug items (e.g., Cotton) 22 (88.0) 19 (76.0) 18 (78.3) 16 (84.2) 19 (95.0) 7 (63.6) 10 (90.9) 51 (98.1) 0.019 92 (91.1) 70 (82.4) 0.077
 Stocking of household items 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Stocking of herbal remedies 18 (72.0) 16 (64.0) 17 (73.9) 14 (73.7) 19 (95.0) 10 (90.9) 8 (72.7) 36 (69.2) 0.313 80 (79.2) 58 (68.2) 0.088
Frequency of regulatory visits
 Regulatory visit in less than a year 2 (8.0) 2 (8.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (18.2) 37 (71.2)  < 0.001 36 (35.6) 7 (8.2) 0.001
 No regulatory visits 1 (4.0) 5 (20.0) 4 (17.4) 0 (0.0) 7 (35.0) 2 (18.2) 0 (0.0) 5 (9.6)  < 0.001 6 (5.9) 18 (21.2) 0.001
Regulatory interactions
 Ever received prior notificationb 22 (88.0) 8 (32.0) 13 (56.5) 12 (63.2) 10 (50.0) 5 (45.5) 1 (9.1) 27 (51.9)  < 0.001 62 (61.4) 36 (42.4) 0.01
 Prior knowledge of identityc 10 (40.0) 3 (12.0) 12 (52.2) 7 (36.8) 8 (40.0) 1 (9.1) 13 (25.0) 58 (31.2) 0.043 36 (35.6) 22 (25.9) 0.152
 Establishing close relationships importantd 19 (76.0) 21 (84.0) 21 (91.3) 19 (100.0) 19 (95.0) 8 (72.7) 8 (72.7) 41 (78.8) 0.159 84 (83.2) 72 (84.7) 0.776
 Ever contributed in cash or kinde 16 (64.0) 8 (32.0) 9 (39.1) 7 (36.8) 10 (50.0) 5 (45.5) 0 (0.0) 9 (17.3) 0.001 31 (30.7) 33 (38.8) 0.245
  1. aIncludes staff who could correctly name the Health Professions Regulatory Bodies Act, Act 857, 2013 as the main legislation that governs pharmacy practice
  2. bIncludes staff who had ever received prior notification before regulatory visits by Inspecting Pharmacists either through Pharmacy Council staff, the staff of other OTCMS facilities or any other means
  3. cIncludes staff who had ever known the identity/name of the Inspection Officer assigned for routine checks before the arrival of that particular officer
  4. dIncludes staff who thought it was important to establish a close relationship/rapport with Inspecting Officers/other Pharmacy Council staff/Pharmacy Council Office for various reasons
  5. eIncludes staff who had ever made any contribution or donation in cash/kind either directly or through other(s) to Inspecting Officers/Pharmacy Council staff/Pharmacy Council Office to establish relationships or for any other reason
  6. fIncludes all selected MDA’S: BM, Bawku Municipal; GT, Garu-Tempane; KNW, Kassena Nankana West; KNM, Kassena Nankana Municipal; Bo, Bongo; P, Pusiga; BW, Bawku west district