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Table 3 Drug-related problems among participants at Mettu Karl Referral Hospital, 2019

From: Identification and resolution of drug-related problems among diabetic patients attending a referral hospital: a prospective observational study

Code Detailed classification n (%)
P Problem 455 (100)
P1 Treatment effectiveness 393 (86.4)
P1.1 No effect of drug treatment 16 (3.5)
P1.2 Effect of drug treatment not optimal 240 (52.7)
P1.3 Untreated symptoms or indication 137 (30.1)
P2 Treatment safety 42 (9.2)
P2.1 Adverse drug event (possibly) occurring 42 (9.2)
P3 Other 20 (4.4)
P3.1 Problem with cost-effectiveness of the treatment 12 (2.6)
P3.2 Unnecessary drug treatment 8 (1.8)
C Cause 527 (100)
C1 Drug selection 170 (32.3)
C1.1 Inappropriate drug according to guidelines/formulary 12 (2.3)
C1.2 Inappropriate drug (within guidelines but otherwise contra-indicated) 4 (0.8)
C1.3 No indication for drug 8 (1.5)
C1.4 Inappropriate combination of drugs 6 (1.1)
C1.5 Inappropriate duplication of therapeutic group or active ingredient 3 (0.6)
C1.6 No or incomplete drug treatment in spite of existing indication 137 (26.0)
C2 Drug form 0 (0.0)
C3 Dose selection 80 (15.2)
C3.1 Drug dose too low 28 (5.3)
C3.2 Drug dose too high 18 (3.4)
C3.3 Dosage regimen not frequent enough 7 (1.3)
C3.4 Dosage regimen too frequent 11 (2.1)
C3.5 Dose timing instructions wrong, unclear or missing 16 (3.0)
C4 Treatment duration 15 (2.8)
C4.1 Duration of treatment too short 9 (1.7)
C4.2 Duration of treatment too long 6 (1.1)
C5 Dispensing 45 (8.5)
C5.1 Prescribed drug not available 10 (1.9)
C5.2 Necessary information not provided 35 (6.6)
C6 Drug use process 58 (11.0)
C6.1 Inappropriate timing of administration or dosing intervals 27 (5.1)
C6.2 Drug under-administered 17 (3.2)
C6.3 Drug over-administered 3 (0.6)
C6.4 Drug not administered at all 11 (2.1)
C7 Patient related 159 (30.2)
C7.1 Patient uses/takes less drug than prescribed or does not take the drug at all 25 (4.7)
C7.2 Patient uses/takes more drug than prescribed 4 (0.8)
C7.4 Patient uses unnecessary drug 3 (0.6)
C7.6 Patient stores drug inappropriately 71 (13.5)
C7.7 Inappropriate timing or dosing intervals 29 (5.5)
C7.8 Patient administers/uses the drug in a wrong way 5 (0.9)
C7.9 Patient unable to use drug/form as directed 22 (4.2)
I Interventions 865 (100.0)
I1 At prescriber level 351 (40.6)
I1.1 Prescriber informed only 43 (5.0)
I1.2 Prescriber asked for information 22 (2.5)
I1.3 Intervention proposed to prescriber 71 (8.2)
I1.4 Intervention discussed with prescriber 215 (24.9)
I2 At patient level 204 (23.6)
I2.1 Patient (drug) counseling 161 (18.6)
I2.3 Patient referred to prescriber 32 (3.7)
I2.4 Spoken to family member/caregiver 11 (1.3)
I3 At drug level 310 (35.8)
I3.1 Drug change 25 (2.9)
I3.2 Dosage change 84 (9.7)
I3.4 Instructions for use change 43 (5.0)
I3.5 Drug pause or stop 21 (2.4)
I3.6 Drug start 137 (15.8)
A1 Intervention acceptance 690 (79.8)
A1.1 Intervention accepted and fully implemented 608 (88.1)
A1.2 Intervention accepted, partially implemented 64 (9.3)
A1.3 Intervention accepted but not implemented 18 (2.6)
A2 Intervention not accepted 175 (20.2)
A2.1 Intervention not accepted: not feasible 8 (4.6)
A2.2 Intervention not accepted: no agreement 167 (95.4)
O Outcome of intervention  
O1.1 Problem totally solved 322 (70.8)
O2.1 Problem partially solved 44 (9.7)
O3.2 Problem not solved, lack of cooperation of prescriber 85 (18.7)
O3.4 No need or possibility to solve problem 4 (0.9)
  1. P problem, C cause, I intervention, A acceptance; O outcome