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Table 2 Methodology and Results

From: Geographical accessibility of medicines: a systematic literature review of pharmacy mapping

Country National Local Country Population Census Pharmacy data collection source Pharmacy Census Validation Pharmacy density per 10,000 population Distance to pharmacies in relation to pop Urban/Rural Ethnicity Socio-economic status
National level data: upper-middle-income economies
Brazil  X    X Saude Legis—database containing legislation and Brazilian Ministry of Health Medium/large municipality: 1.07, Small municipality: 2.15 Wealthy areas have a higher coverage
South Africa  X    X Department of Health, SAPC- South African Pharmacy Council 0.61 Urban (least rural) province: 0.99, Most Rural province: 0.27 Most deprived districts: 0.11/10,000,
In province: 0.34/10,000
National level data: high-income economies
England  X    X Fuse Geo-Health Care Access Database 89.2%—within 20 min walk
England  X    X Geo-Healthcare Access Database 75%—within 10 min walking distance of one another
19%—in a cluster of two
56%—in a cluster of three
Urban: 19%, 19%, 62%
Town: 94%, 5%, 1% Rural: 94%, 4%, 2%—no cluster, cluster of two and three respectively
New Zealand  X    X Till 2005—New Zealand Gazette, the official government journal. 2005–2010: MedSafe, a division of Ministry of Health 2.2 In 2010:
86.5%—within 5 km
In 2010:
99.8% within 25 km
Pharmacies centralize in areas of high population Most deprived areas (according to NZDep) are more likely to live close to a pharmacy
United States  X    X National Council for Prescription Drug Program, 2007–15 Internal validation by NCPDP 2.11 Highest quintiles had threefold more pharmacies than those in lowest quintile
Regional level data: lower-middle-income economies
Ujjain district, Madhya Pradesh, India    X  X Survey by identifying private pharmacies in the community, list from pharmacy association  X 2.8 78% within 50 m from a health care provider, 17% within 50–100 m from a health care provider Urban: 5.83/10,000. Rural: 0.84 per 10,000
Regional level data: high-income economies
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States    X  X Not explained 2.5 86%—within 10 min, 96%—within 15 min, Average travel time: 8.11 min African–American have better accessibility to pharmacy (7.64 min) than white (8.59 min) Elderly have easy access to pharmacies compared to general population
Chicago, United States    X  X Illinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation for the period 2000–12 0.64/census tract Pharmacy deseeds—clustered on the south and west side in segregated black and Hispanic community
Illinois, United States    X  X Illinois Department of Professional Regulation Urban: 1.27
Rural: 0.38
Average distance: 2.73 km,
For elderly: 3.05 km. Entire population: within 32 km, 0.1% rural – travel more
Liguria, Italy    X  X Italian Ministry of Health’s open dataset 3.8 Mean distance to nearest pharmacy: 6.8 km,
81.7% municipality-had one pharmacy
Provincial level: 3.6/10,000
Municipal level: 11.07/10,000
Lisbon, Portugal    X  X National Health System database 13.35 88%—live within 800 m
Elderly: 89.1% within 800 m
Pedestrian distance:
61.2% within 10 min walk, 76.9% within 15 min walk
Poorly accessible areas seen not only in rural areas but also in norther urbanization corridor
Minnesota, North and South Dakota, United States    X  X State Boards of Pharmacy,
Surveys conducted with developed survey instrument
 X Average distance:
Minnesota: 18 km, South Dakota: 29.3 km,
North Dakota: 32 km
Population > 32 km from a pharmacy:
Minnesota—0.4%, South Dakota—7.3%, North Dakota—4.3%
New York, United States    X  X New York State registries, survey of selected pharmacy  X High poverty regions: 5.1
Low poverty regions: 3.5
For each 10%—point increase in the number of households in poverty, odds of one or more prescription medications
unavailability on the pharmacy shelves increases by 24%
Nova Scotia, Canada    X Nova Scotia college of Pharmacists 12.24 42% within 800 m, 62.6% within 2 km and 78.8% within 5 km Urban:
61.3%within 800 m, 90% within 2 km and 99.2% within 5 km. Rural:28% within 2 km and 53.3% live within 5 km
Ontario, Canada    X  X Ontario College of Pharmacists  X 7.96 (From Nova Scotia article) 63.6%—within 800 m, 84.6% within 2 km and 90.7% within 5 km Urban: 73.3%, 96.2% and 99.4% within 800 m, 2 km and 5 km respectively
Rural: 8.5%, 18.1%, 40.9% within 800 m, 2 km and 5 km
Pennsylvania, United States    X  X Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Assistance Contract for the Elderly (PACE) and PACE Needs Enhancement Tier  X 33%—live more than 1.6 km Pharmacy deserts – in rural Pharmacy deserts
have significantly more females, married and white elderly and fewer blacks and Hispanics
compared to pharmacy non-deserts
Median annual household income higher for those living in pharmacy deserts
Scottish Highland,
Scotland
   X CACL consumer database ‘Ocean’ Questionnaires sent to a random sample obtained from database ‘Ocean’. Pharmacy locations were identified using respondent’s postcode Median distance travelled – 2.4 km
84.3%—convenient
Significant association between rurality and convenience – those in most rural areas more likely not convenient Convenience, also associated with good health, younger age and those living with a partner
Shelby County, Memphis,
Tennessee, United States
   X  X Cross-sectional survey of community pharmacies  X 1.49 ± 1.04 Areas with more pharmacies per 10,000 residents had a higher % of white residents High income regions: ≥ 1.88
Low income regions: < 0.72
South side Chicago, United States    X South Side Health and Vitality Statistics Illinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation, interviews with pharmacies 1.8 per mi2 Median distance: 1.93 km, 31% fill prescription from nearest pharmacy