Skip to main content

Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Geographical accessibility of medicines: a systematic literature review of pharmacy mapping

Author Title Country Year Objective Type of pharmacies
Ikram et al Disparities in spatial accessibility of pharmacies in Baton Rouge, Louisiana Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States 2015 Examine the geographic variability in accessibility
Identify possible “pharmacy deserts” in the study area
Emmerick et al Farmácia Popular Program (FPP): changes in geographic accessibility of medicines during ten years of a medicine subsidy policy in Brazil Brazil 2015 Describe historical stages of FPP
Identify associated changes in geographic accessibility of medicines through FPP over time
Public and private
Qato et al ‘Pharmacy Deserts’ Are Prevalent
In Chicago’s Predominantly
Minority Communities, Raising Medication Access Concerns
Chicago, United States 2014 Examine whether access to pharmacies varied across Chicago communities based on their racial or ethnic composition Community pharmacy defined as pharmacy licensed to dispense prescription to public
Todd et al Access all areas? An area-level analysis of accessibility to general practice and community pharmacy services in England by urbanity and social deprivation England 2015 Determine the percentage of population in England that has access to a GP within 20 min walk
Compare accessibility of GP premises to that of a community pharmacy and how that varies by urbanity and social deprivation
Todd et al Cutting care clusters: the creation of an inverse pharmacy care law? An area-level analysis exploring the clustering of community pharmacies in England England 2018 Explore the clustering of community pharmacies in England and
Determine the relationship between community pharmacy clustering, urbanity and deprivation
Lin et al Access to Community Pharmacies by the Elderly in Illinois: a Geographic Information Systems Analysis Illinois, United States 2004 Examine the current geographic accessibility to community pharmacies by the elderly in Illinois and
Compare the accessibility in urban and rural areas
Domnich et al Assessing spatial inequalities in accessing community pharmacies: a mixed geographically weighted approach Liguria, Italy 2016 Explore the spatial accessibility to pharmacies in Liguria from the perspective of local characteristics
Identify disparities and their sources
Padeiro et al Geographical accessibility to community pharmacies by the elderly in metropolitan Lisbon Lisbon-Metropolitan Area, Portugal 2017 Measure geographical pedestrian accessibility to community pharmacies by elderly people in the Lisbon
Casey et al Pharmacv Services in Rural Areas: is the Problem Geographic Access or Financial Access? Minnesota, South Dakota and North Dakota, US 2002 Analyze the extent to which problems with access to pharmacy services exist in rural areas of three states Private
Amstislavski et al Medication deserts: survey of neighborhood disparities in availability of prescription medications New York, United States 2012 Characterize medication access at the community level 74% Independent
26% chain
Norris et al Geographical access to community pharmacies in New Zealand New Zealand 2014 Explore pharmacy numbers and location changes in NZ and assess its impact on people with poor access to pharmacy services
Law et al The geographic accessibility of pharmacies in Nova Scotia Nova Scotia, Canada 2013 Identify current geographic distribution of pharmacies in Nova Scotia
Study the impact of closures have on the access to pharmacies
Private
Law et al Geographic Accessibility of Community Pharmacies in Ontario Ontario, Canada 2011 Study current state of geographic access to pharmacies and
Simulate impact of possible closures
Pednekar et al Mapping pharmacy deserts and determining accessibility to community pharmacy services for elderly enrolled in a State Pharmaceutical Assistance Program Pennsylvania, United States 2018 Identify pharmacy deserts in Pennsylvania for elderly enrolled in a State Pharmaceutical Assistance Program Private, Community pharmacy defined as pharmacy licensed to dispense prescription to public
Rushworth et al A cross-sectional survey of the access of older people in the Scottish Highlands to general medical practices, community pharmacies and prescription medicines Scottish highland 2017 Quantify issues of access to GPs, community pharmacies and prescribed medicine in older people
Chisholm Burns et al Evaluation of racial and socioeconomic disparities in medication pricing and pharmacy access and services Shelby county, Memphis, Tennessee, United States 2017 Determine if there are racial and socioeconomic disparities in community pharmacy access, drug pricing, and services
Ward et al Assessing equity in the geographical distribution of community pharmacies in South Africa in preparation for a national health insurance scheme South Africa 2013 Examine the ownership and geographical distribution of community pharmacies between 1994 and 2001 Private
Qato et al Pharmacy Accessibility and Cost-Related Underuse of Prescription Medications in Low-Income Black and Hispanic Urban Communities South Side Chicago, United States 2017 Examine the association between pharmacy accessibility, utilization and cost-related underuse of prescription medications among residents of predominantly low-income, Black and Hispanic urban communities
Sabde et al Mapping private pharmacies and their characteristics in Ujjain district, Central India Ujjain district, Madhya Pradesh, India 2011 Survey pharmacies and map them on GIS to study their location, rural–urban distribution and
Study their relationship to roadways and healthcare providers
Private
Qato et al The availability of pharmacies in the United States: 2007–2015 United States 2017 Examine the trends in availability of community pharmacies and pharmacy characteristics associated with access to prescription medicines Public and Private