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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the trial participants and design features of the cardiovascular outcome trials

From: Imbalance in glycemic control between the treatment and placebo groups in cardiovascular outcome trials in type 2 diabetes

Trial Drug
(Class)
Year started/reported Number of subjects Age (years) Baseline HbA1c (%) BMI Diabetes duration (years) Prior CVD/HF (%) Follow up (median, years) Primary endpoints
EXAMINE Alogliptin
(DPP-4)
2009/13 5380 61.0 8.0 28.7 7.1 100/28 1.5 3 MACE
CARMELINA Linagliptin (DPP-4) 2013/18 6979 66.1 8.0 31.4 15.0 58/27 2.2 3 MACE
SAVOR-TIMI Saxagliptin
(DPP-4)
2010/13 16,492 65.1 8.0 31.1 10.3 78/13 2.1 3 MACE
TECOS Sitagliptin
(DPP-4)
2008/15 14,671 65.4 7.2 30.2 11.6 74/18 3.0 4 MACE
HARMONY Albiglutide
(GLP-1)
2015/18 9463 64.1 8.7 32.3 14.1 70/20 1.6 3 MACE
EXSCEL Exenatide
(GLP-1)
2010/17 14,752 62.0 8.0 31.8 12.0 73/16 3.2 3 MACE
LEADER Liraglutide
(GLP-1)
2010/16 9340 64.3 8.7 32.5 12.8 81/18 3.8 3 MACE
ELIXA Lixisenatide
(GLP-1)
2010/15 6068 60.3 7.7 30.2 9.3 100/22 2.1 4 MACE
SUSTAIN-6 Semaglutide
(GLP-1)
2013/16 3297 64.6 8.7 32.8 13.9 60/24 2.1 3 MACE
CANVAS Canagliflozin
(SGLT2)
2009/17 10,142 63.3 8.2 32.0 13.5 66/14 3.6 3 MACE
DECLARE–TIMI Dapagliflozin (SGLT2) 2013/18 17,160 63.9 8.3 32.1 11.0 41/10 4.2 3 MACE
EMPA-REG OUTCOME Empagliflozin
(SGLT2)
2010/15 7028 63.1 8.1 30.7 57% > 10 years 99/10 3.1 3 MACE
  1. BMI Body mass index, CVD Cardiovascular disease, DPP-4 Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, GLP-1 Glucagon-like peptide 1 agonist, HF Heart failure, 3 MACE Three-component major adverse cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke), 4 MACE Four-component major adverse cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and hospitalization for unstable angina), SGLT2 Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor