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Table 3 Brand or licensed brand median unit prices (US$) and medicine price ratios for branded generics and generics considering the brand or licensed brand as reference price, for antibiotics, antidiabetics and antihypertensives, in Brazil, 2002, 2006 and 2010

From: The Brazilian private pharmaceutical market after the first ten years of the generics law

Selected medicines 2002 2006 2010
Originator Branded generics Generics Originator Branded generics Generics Originator Branded generics Generics
Antibiotics
 Penicillins
  Amoxicillin a, c 1.02 72.0% 24.9% 1.48 54.9% 38.6% 1.53 46.9% 44.8%
  Amoxicillin+Clavulanic acid a, c 2.03 83.9% 66.8% 3.61 78.5% 49.1% 3.82 64.2% 75.4%
  Ampicillin a, d 1.06 75.2% 50.8% 1.49 49.4% 49.5% 1.82 35.6% 42.7%
 Fluoroquinolones
  Ciprofloxacin a, c 2.71 72.2% 100.3% 10.75 19.1% 31.2% 12.33 15.0% 19.6%
  Levofloxacin a, d 6.01 * * 9.26 45.1% 54.4% 11.63 39.4% 43.1%
  Norfloxacin a, d 1.50 55.8% 59.4% 1.94 55.9% 60.0% 2.34 53.0% 57.3%
 Cephalosporins
  Cefaclor a, d 1.93 148.8% * 2.39 144.8% 107.6% 3.57 * 72.2%
  Cefadoxil a, c 3.49 34.8% 43.6% 4.92 29.8% 36.9% 3.07 32.5% 67.1%
  Cefalexin a, d 1.53 78.2% 43.3% 1.74 81.7% 62.7% 2.13 64.0% 54.9%
  Cefuroxime axetil b, c 4.08 * 46.0% 4.99 * 42.5% 6.01 * 61.4%
  Cefalotin b, d 2.79 106.7% 114.3% 3.67 94.0% 80.7% 4.62 101.3% 65.7%
  Cefazolin b, d 5.58 110.4% * 6.38 60.6% * 4.29 262.2% 93.3%
  Cefepime b, c 19.10 * * 25.05 171.3% 71.2% 57.79 87.8% 69.2%
  Ceftazidime b, c 29.97 56.6% * 31.63 38.9% 47.2% 49.94 30.0% 30.0%
  Ceftriazone b, c 30.73 49.5% 25.4% 45.94 44.2% 23.5% 52.85 30.3% 30.0%
 Macrolides
  Azitromycin a, d 6.91 68.4% 99.3% 6.38 80.6% 116.8% 7.62 48.5% 83.1%
  Claritromycin a, d 3.12 116.1% 82.1% 3.43 88.6% 118.2% 4.11 64.0% 119.3%
  Clindamycin a, c 2.00 97.6% 60.8% 2.84 58.6% 53.9% 3.41 53.0% 52.8%
  Erythromycin a, d 0.64 141.5% * 0.71 139.8% * 0.81 85.8% 111.7%
Antidiabetics a, c
 Glibenclamide 0.16 57.9% 66.9% 0.20 63.9% 63.7% 0.25 53.7% 63.5%
 Glimepiride 0.38 161.7% * 0.53 118.1% 117.0% 0.99 74.2% 78.8%
Antihypertensives a
 Methyldopa c 0.37 167.3% 102.1% 0.48 123.7% 78.4% 0.59 108.5% 72.3%
 Diuretics
  Spironolacton c 0.41 * * 0.52 73.7% 64.4% 0.57 71.9% 65.7%
  Furosemide c 0.15 106.8% 86.0% 0.11 218.5% 183.6% 0.12 174.6% 139.4%
  Chlorthalidone c 0.19 88.3% * 0.25 71.4% 66.0% 0.27 65.5% 79.7%
  Amiloride+hydrochlorothiazide c 0.20 97.1% * 0.26 92.1% 68.1% 0.30 94.7% 64.7%
 Betablockers
  Atenolol c 0.44 68.9% 59.0% 0.61 53.3% 46.8% 0.70 46.9% 41.5%
  Carvedilol c 1.06 65.3% * 1.57 38.1% 48.8% 1.91 32.7% 46.8%
  Metoprolol c 0.51 * 45.1% 0.36 * 89.2% 0.42 * 87.6%
  Propranolol c 0.11 63.0% * 0.16 58.7% 56.8% 0.18 60.3% 57.1%
  Sotalol c 0.85 * 79.5% 1.33 65.4% 71.4% 1.58 75.8% 71.0%
  Atenolol+Chlorthalidone c 0.60 71.0% * 0.83 58.7% 52.2% 0.94 55.3% 49.5%
 Calcium antagonists
  Amlodipine c 1.51 52.7% 50.5% 1.88 36.9% 41.6% 2.11 34.4% 46.2%
  Diltiazem d 0.45 119.6% 29.1% 0.55 140.2% 36.0% 1.01 101.1% 34.7%
  Felodipine c 1.20 * * 1.62 76.5% 84.1% 1.92 * 50.1%
  Verapamil c 0.40 70.1% 91.4% 0.57 58.2% 52.1% 0.62 42.0% 56.8%
 ACE inhibitors
  Captopril c 0.58 54.0% 57.9% 0.87 38.5% 44.7% 1.09 30.6% 41.1%
  Enalapril c 0.97 39.4% 41.9% 0.46 97.9% 113.8% 0.33 146.2% 170.5%
  Lisinopril c 0.82 59.0% 61.6% 1.09 59.3% 62.3% 1.50 45.5% 53.7%
  Ramipril c 0.66 122.6% * 2.66 40.7% 42.5% 3.23 30.9% 32.7%
  Captopril+ hydrochlorothiazide c 1.12 68.2% * 1.57 73.1% 58.6% 1.79 46.4% 60.4%
  Enalapril+ hydrochlorothiazide c 1.04 65.3% * 1.36 54.5% 61.0% 0.93 87.8% 107.7%
  Lisinopril+ hydrochlorothiazide c 1.10 131.4% * 1.40 60.9% 108.2% 1.60 69.0% *
  Ramirpil+ hydrochlorothiazide c 2.18 48.1% * 3.08 46.6% * 3.49 37.4% 44.8%
  Losartan d 1.76 62.9% * 2.48 40.2% 36.4% 1.06 68.4% 63.5%
  Losartan+ hydrochlorothiazide d 1.76 75.2% * 2.49 35.6% 55.1% 1.54 61.8% 82.1%
  1. The time points are the first quarter of the respective year
  2. *no unit price for generic or branded generic available
  3. aOral presentations
  4. bInjectable preparations
  5. cOriginal brand
  6. dLicensed brand
  7. Medicine price ratios for branded generics and generics considering the brand or licensed brand as reference price with percentages higher than 100% were highlighted in boldface