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Table 5 Univariate and multivariate analysis of factors associated with pre-dialysis controlled hypertension at baseline (n = 145)

From: Hypertension control among euvolemic hypertensive hemodialysis patients in Malaysia: a prospective follow-up study

Variables Patients with pre-dialysis controlled hypertension at baseline
Number (%)
Univariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
p-value Multivariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
p-value
Yes No
Gender
 Female 18 (24) 57 (76) Reference    
 Male 12 (17.1) 58 (82.9) 0.655 (0.289-1.483) 0.310   
Age
  ≤ 40 1 (14.3) 6 (85.7) Reference    
 41-60 15 (18.1) 68 (81.9) 1.324 (0.148-11.821) 0.802   
  > 60 14 (25.5) 41 (74.5) 2.049 (0.227-18.531) 0.523   
BMI
 Underweight 3 (50) 3 (50) Reference   Reference  
 Normal 17 (18.9) 73 (81.1) 0.233 (0.043-1.256) 0.090 0.597 (0.080-4.470) 0.615
 Overweight 7 (16.7) 35 (83.3) 0.200 (0.033-1.203) 0.079 0.378 (0.036-3.951) 0.417
 Obese 3 (42.9) 4 (57.1) 0.750 (0.084-6.710) 0.797 1.737 (0.109-1.851) 0.268
Smoking status
 Current Smoker 8 (18.2) 36 (81.8) Reference    
 Non-Smoker 22 (21.8) 79 (78.2) 1.253 (0.509-3.083) 0.623   
Drug addiction
 Current drug addiction 5 (31.3) 11 (68.8) Reference    
 No drug addiction 25 (19.4) 104 (80.6) 0.529 (0.169-1.660) 0.275   
Hemodialysis centers
 Private 16 (19) 68 (81) Reference   Reference  
 NGO 3 (12.5) 21 (87.5) 0.607 (0.161-2.288) 0.461 0.448 (0.109-1.851) 0.268
 Governmental 11 (29.7) 26 (70.3) 1.798 (0.738-4.382) 0.197 0.959 (0.299-3.077) 0.944
Vascular access
 Fistula 28 (20.7) 107 (79.3) Reference    
 Others 2 (20) 8 (80) 0.955 (0.192-4.753) 0.956   
Diabetes mellitus
 No 10 (20.8) 38 (79.2) Reference    
 Yes 20 (20.6) 77 (79.4) 0.987 (0.421-2.316) 0.976   
Cardiovascular diseases
 No 26 (20.8) 99 (79.2) Reference    
 Yes 4 (20) 16 (80) 0.952 (0.293-3.091) 0.935   
Cerebrovascular accident
 No 27 (20.6) 104 (79.4) Reference    
 Yes 3 (21.4) 11 (78.6) 1.051 (0.274-4.032) 0.943   
Hyperlipidemia
 No 30 (24) 95 (76) Non-computable    
 Yes 20 (100)    
Gouty arthritis
 No 29 (22.8) 98 (77.2) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 1 (5.6) 17 (94.4) 0.199 (0.25-1.558) 0.124 0.304 (0.033-2.770) 0.291
Others comorbiditiesa
 No 18 (17.3) 86 (82.7) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 12 (29.3) 29 (70.7) 1.977 (0.851-4.593) 0.113 2.307 (0.851-6.260) 0.101
ACE-I
 No 30 (22.6) 103 (77.4) Non-Computable    
 Yes 12 (100)    
ARB
 No 20 (18.3) 89 (81.7) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 10 (27.8) 26 (72.2) 1.712 (0.713-4.109) 0.229 3.436 (0.965-12.238) 0.061
CCB
 No 13 (12.7) 89 (87.3) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 17 (39.5) 26 (60.5) 4.476 (1.925-10.411) 0.001 7.530 (2.413-23.498) 0.001
Alpha antagonist
 No 27 (19.4) 112 (80.6) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 3 (50) 3 (50) 4.148 (0.793-21.698) 0.092 4.049 (0.510-32.120) 0.186
Beta antagonist
 No 19 (18.4) 84 (81.6) Reference    
 Yes 11 (26.2) 31 (73.8) 1.569 (0.671-3.667) 0.299   
Diuretics
 No 23 (22.1) 81 (77.9) Reference    
 Yes 7 (17.1) 34 (82.9) 0.725 (0.284-1.849) 0.501   
Other combination of antihypertensives
 No 27 (20.8) 103 (79.2) Reference    
 Yes 3 (20) 12 (80) 0.954 (0.251-3.621) 0.944   
Type of therapy
 Mono-therapy 15 (19) 64 (81) Reference    
 Multi-therapy 15 (22.7) 51 (77.3) 1.255 (0.561-2.806) 0.580   
Statins
 No 8 (20) 32 (80) Reference    
 Yes 22 (21) 83 (79) 1.060 (0.428-2.624) 0.899   
Phosphate binders
 No 5 (27.8) 13 (72.2) Reference    
 Yes 25 (19.7) 102 (80.3) 0.637 (0.208-1.954) 0.431   
  1. Analysis: Univariate and Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. All variables with p-value < 0.25 will be included in the multivariate analysis. OR Odds ratio, CI confidence interval, BMI Body mass index, NGO Non-governmental organization, aOther comorbidities: Blood clots, depression, asthma, osteoarthritis, pregnancy losses/birth defects and osteoporosis. ACE-I Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB Angiotensin receptor blocker, CCB Calcium channel blocker