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Table 2 Proposed minimum and maximum out-of-pocket cost per R&D phase for SME antibiotic innovation for DRIVE-AB models

From: Insights into early stage of antibiotic development in small- and medium-sized enterprises: a survey of targets, costs, and durations

R&D Phase General Pharmaceutical R&D Costs Sertkaya et al. [23] Proposed Minimum Cost Proposed Maximum Cost
Lead compound identification USD 2.5 million [22] (Used general pharmaceutical cost) € 100,000 € 2.5 million
Lead compound optimization USD 10 million [22] (Used general pharmaceutical cost) € 1 million € 5 million
Preclinical testing USD 5 million [22] (Used general pharmaceutical cost) € 1 million € 5 million
Phase I clinical trials USD 25 million [17] USD 10 million € 1 million € 10 million
Phase II clinical trials USD 35 million [17] USD 9–16 million € 1 million € 20 million