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Table 4 Drug utilization pattern in study participants (ATC level 1–4)

From: Drug utilization patterns among elderly hospitalized patients on poly-pharmacy in Punjab, Pakistan

Drug Utilization pattern (%a)
Level 1 n % Level 2 n % Level 3 n % Level 4 n %
A 480 80 A01: Stomatological preparations 120 20 A01A: Stomatological preparations 120 20 A01AB: Anti-infectives and antiseptics for local oral treatment 120 20
A02: Drugs for acid related disorders 387 64.5 A02B: Drugs for peptic ulcer and GERD 382 63.7 A02BA: H2-receptor antagonists 60 10
A02BC: Proton pump inhibitors 309 51.5
A03: Drugs for functional gastrointestinal disorders 129 21.5 A03F: Propulsives 116 19.3 A03FA: Propulsives 116 19.3
A10: Drugs used in diabetes 117 19.5 A10B: Blood glucose lowering drugs 72 12 A10BB: Sulfonylureas 53 8.8
B 56 9.3 B01: Antithrombotic agents 26 4.3 B01A: Antithrombotic agents 26 4.3 B01AC: Platelet aggregation inhibitors 23 3.8
B05: Blood substitutes 27 4.5 B05B:I.v. solutions 27 4.5 B05BC: Osmotic diuresis 27 4.5
C 290 48.3 C03: Diuretics 75 12.5 C03C: High-ceiling diuretics 68 11.3 C03CA: Sulfonamides, plain 68 11.3
C07: Beta blocking agents 119 19.8 C07A: Beta blocking agents 119 19.8 C07AB: Beta blocking agents, selective 62 10.3
C08: Calcium channel blockers 99 16.5 C08C: Selective calcium channel blockers 91 15.2 C08CA: Dihydropyridine derivatives 91 15.2
C10: Lipid modifying agents 99 16.5 C10A: Lipid modifying agents, plain 97 16.2 C10AA: HMG CoA reductase inhibitors 97 16.2
D 36 6 D07: Corticosteroids 41 6.8 D07A: Corticosteroids, plain 41 6.8 D07AA: Corticosteroids, weak (group I) 30 5
G 3 0.5 G04: Urologicals 4 0.7 G04C: Drugs used in BPH 2 0.3 G04CA: Alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonists 2 0.3
H 36 6 H01: Pituitary and hypothalamic hormones 31 5.2 H01C: Hypothalamic hormones 31 5.2 H01CB: Somatostatin and analogues 31 5.2
J 373 62.2 J01: Antibacterials for systemic use 495 82.5 J01D: Other beta-lactam antibacterials 266 44.3 J01DD: 3rd-generation cephalosporins 255 42.5
J01 M: Quinolone antibacterials 68 11.3 J01MA: Fluoroquinolones 68 11.3
J04: Antimycobacterials 92 15.3 J04A: Drugs for tuberculosis 92 15.3 J04AK: Other drugs 48 8
L 13 2.2 L01: Antineoplastic agents 17 2.8 L01B: Antimetabolites 04 0.7 L01BA: Folic acid analogues 03 0.5
M 184 30.7 M01: Anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products 188 31.3 M01A: Anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, non-steroids 188 31.3 M01AB: Acetic acid derivatives 159 26.5
N 398 66.3 N02: Analgesics 403 67.2 N02B: Other analgesics and antipyretics 359 59.8 N02BE: Anilides 305 50.8
N03: Antiepileptics 67 11.2 N03A: Antiepileptics 67 11.2 N03AX: Other antiepileptics 32 5.3
P 12 2 P01: Antiprotozoals 13 2.2 P01B: Antimalarials 12 2 P01BF: Artemisinin and derivatives 9 1.5
R 182 30.3 R01: Nasal preparations 84 14 R01A: Decongestants and other 84 14 R01AD: Corticosteroids 61 10.2
R03: Drugs for obstructive airway diseases 113 18.8 R03A: Adrenergics, inhalants 86 14.3 R03AC: Selective beta-2 agonists 43 7.2
R06: Antihistamines for systemic use 67 11.2 R06A: Antihistamines for systemic use 67 11.2 R06AA: Aminoalkyl ethers 46 7.7
V 4 0.7 V03: Other therapeutic products 6 1 V03A: Other therapeutic products 6 1 V03AB: Antidotes 6 1
  1. Note: A patient may be prescribed one or more than one drug from level 2, level 3 and level 4 categories
  2. aPercentages given with respect to the total sample size of the patients. GERD Gastroesophageal reflux disease, BPH Benign prostate hyperplasia