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Table 1 Characteristics of hospitalized elderly population

From: Drug utilization patterns among elderly hospitalized patients on poly-pharmacy in Punjab, Pakistan

Variables Male (n = 316) Female (n = 284) Total (n = 600)
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Age (years) 60–74 239 (75.6) 183 (64.4) 422 (70.3)
75–89 57 (18) 76 (26.8) 133 (22.2)
≥90 20 (6.3) 25 (8.8) 45 (7.5)
Civil Status Single 15 (4.7) 6 (2.1) 21 (3.5)
Married 284 (89.9) 178 (62.7) 462 (77)
Widowed 13 (4.1) 78 (27.5) 91 (15.2)
Divorced 4 (1.3) 22 (7.7) 26 (4.3)
Education level Primary (≤10 years) 259 (82) 262 (92.3) 521 (86.8)
Secondary (11–13 years) 54 (17.1) 21 (7.4) 75 (12.5)
Tertiary (≥14 years) 3 (0.9) 1 (0.4) 4 (0.7)
Annual income Low class (PKR0–299,999) 237 (75) 240 (84.5) 477 (79.5)
Middle class (PKR300,000–999,999) 63 (19.9) 41 (14.4) 104 (17.3)
Upper class (PKR ≥ 1,000,000) 16 (5.1) 3 (1.1) 19 (3.2)
Employment status Employed 114 (36.1) 39 (13.7) 153 (25.5)
Unemployed 202 (63.9) 245 (86.3) 447 (74.5)
Residence Rural (an area outside of cities and towns) 177 (56) 158 (55.6) 335 (55.8)
Urban (a city area considered as the inner city) 139 (44) 126 (44.4) 265 (44.2)
Self-reported health Good 14 (4.4) 20 (7) 34 (5.7)
Moderate 208 (65.8) 160 (56.3) 368 (61.3)
Poor 94 (29.7) 104 (36.6) 198 (33)
Health Service Utilization Clinic visits ≤3/year 207 (65.5) 165 (58.1) 372 (62)
Clinic visits ≥4/year 109 (34.5) 119 (41.9) 228 (38)
Health Risks Smoking 189 (59.8) 38 (13.4) 227 (37.8)
Alcohol Consumption 5 (1.6) 0 (0) 5 (0.8)
Obesity 48 (15.2) 166 (58.5) 214 (35.7)
None 74 (23.4) 80 (28.2) 154 (25.7)
Co-morbidity Present 163 (51.6) 161 (56.7) 324 (54)
Absent 153 (48.4) 123 (43.3) 276 (46)
Number of drugs 5 251 (79.4) 204 (71.8) 455 (75.8)
6 53 (16.8) 62 (21.8) 115 (19.2)
7 11 (3.5) 15 (5.3) 26 (4.3)
8 1 (0.3) 3 (1.1) 4 (0.7)