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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Interaction and medical inducement between pharmaceutical representatives and physicians: a meta-synthesis

Study Participant’s Specialty (N) Gender M/F Years of Practice (N) Practice Setting Country
Morgan et al. 2006 [25] Gynecologists (397) 125/92 NA Obstetrics-gynaecology partnership or group (44.2%)
Solo practice (27%)
Multispecialty group (14.9%)
University full-time faculty and practice (10.7%)
Health maintenance organisation (3.3%)
US
Anderson et al. 2009 [28] Gynecologists (251) 143/108 Mean (SD): 22 (11) Private practice (178)
Community hospital (25)
University hospital (30)
Other (16)
US
Wang et al. 2009 [27] Ophthalmology trainees (122):
1st year residents (32)
2nd year residents (44)
3rd year residents (28)
Fellows (17)
Unknown (1)
NA NA NA US
Misra et al. 2010 [24] Psychiatry trainees (17):
Residents (12)
Fellow trainee (5)
Psychiatry faculty (58):
Assistant professor (21)
Associate professor (6)
Professors (13)
NA NA Academic medical centre US
Fischer et al. 2009 [34] Internal medicine (29)
Family medicine (17)
Pediatric medicine (2)
Geriatric medicine (3)
23/38 15 Academic affiliation (21)
Community-based practice (24)
Academic affiliation & community-based practice (8)
Other (8)
US
Brett et al. 2003 [23] Residents (39)
Faculty physicians (37)
49/27 NA Medical school US
Sarikaya et al. 2009 [32] Medical students
2nd year students (280)
3rd year medical students (308)
168/140 NA Marmara University School of Medicine (MUSM)
Ege University School of Medicine (EUSM)
Turkey
Saito et al. 2010 [26] Internal medicine (214)
General surgery (181)
Orthopedic surgery (177)
Pediatrics (221)
Obstetrics (210)
Psychiatry (197)
Ophthalmology (209)
1084/326 <10 (339)
11–20 (488)
21–30 (428)
>31 (155)
Office (822)
Hospital (588)
Japan
Roy et al. 2003 Senior executives in drug companies (15)
PRs (36)
Physicians (25)
Chemists (25)
    India
Alssageer et al. 2013 [31] General Practitioner (GP) (274)
Surgeon (99)
Resident MO (41)
Anesthesiologist (61)
Specialist (91)
Others (42)
371/237 1-3 (288)
4–6 (82)
7–9 (45)
>10 (193)
Public (512)
Private (34)
Both (62)
Libya
Alssageer et al. 2012 [22] GP (274)
Surgeon (99)
Resident MO (41)
Anesthesiologist (61)
Specialist (91)
Others (42)
371/237 1-3 (288)
4–6 (82)
7–9 (45)
>10 (193)
Public (512)
Private (34)
Both (62)
Libya
Prosser et al. 2003 [33] GP (107) 76/31 <10 (6)
11–20 (55)
>20 (46)
Health authorities in the North West of England (107) UK
Al-Areef et al. 2013 [21] Physicians (32)
(interns, GPs/medical officers, residents
and specialists)
4/28 NA NA Yemen
Lieb et al. 2010 [29] Neurologists/psychiatrists (83)
Primary care physicians (76)
cardiologist (49)
104/98
Unknown gender (6)
NA NA Germany
De Ferrari et al. 2014 [9] Internal medicine (59)
General surgery (32)
Pediatrics (28)
Anesthesiologist (13)
Obstetrics (16)
96/52 NA Peruvian public general hospital. Peru
  1. Abbreviations: GP General Practitioner, NA not applicable/available, UK United Kingdom, US United States of America, MO Medical Officer, SD Standard deviation