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Table 2 Factors associated with self-medication for COVID-19 prevention and treatment (N = 469)

From: Prevalence, pattern and predictors of self-medication for COVID-19 among residents in Umuahia, Abia State, Southeast Nigeria: policy and public health implications

Variables Self-medication cOR 95% CI P value*
  Yes n (%) No n (%)  
Age(years)      
 < 40 58(24.3) 181(75.7) 1   
 ≥ 40 84(36.5) 146(63.5) 1.80 1.20–2.68 0.003
Educational status
None/primary 12(60.0) 8(40.0) 5.51 2.05–14.81 0.001
Secondary 45(39.1) 70(60.9) 2.36 1.34–4.14 0.003
Tertiary 57(28.1) 146(71.9) 1.43 0.85–2.41 0.171
Postgraduate 28(21.4) 103(78.6) 1   
Marital status
Single 31(23.0) 104(77.0) 1   
Married/cohabiting 95(31.7) 205(68.3) 1.55 0.97–2.49 0.065
Widowed/separated 16(47.1) 18(52.9) 2.98 1.36–6.53 0.006
Employment status
Salary earner 53(26.6) 146(73.4) 0.75 0.46–1.22 0.239
Self-employment 49(33.1) 94(66.9) 1.01 0.61–1.69 0.955
Unemployed 40(32.8) 82(67.2) 1   
Monthly income (Naira)
None 34(30.9) 76(69.1) 1   
 < 50,000 48(34.3) 92(65.7) 1.17 0.68–1.99 0.573
50–100,000 24(30.4) 55(69.6) 0.98 0.52–1.83 0.938
 > 100,000 36(25.7) 104(74.3) 0.77 0.44–1.35 0.364
SM is cheaper  
Yes 125(33.8) 245(66.2) 2.46 1.40–4.33 0.002
No 17(17.2) 82(82.8) 1   
Correct definition of SM  
Yes 125(30.3) 287(69.7) 1   
No 17(29.8) 40(70.2) 1.02 0.56–1.88 0.937
SM is harmful  
Yes 122(30.5) 278(69.5) 0.93 0.53–1.63 0.800
No 20(29.0) 49(71.0) 1   
  1. P value < 0.05 are considered significant, SM self-medication, *binary logistic regression