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Table 5 Factors associated with antibiotics usage among COVID-19 during hospitalization

From: The landscape of antibiotic usage among COVID-19 patients in the early phase of pandemic: a Malaysian national perspective

Variables Simple logistic regression Multiple logistic regression
Crude OR 95% CI χ2 statistics
(df)a
p-valuea Adj. OR 95% CI χ2 statistics
(df)a
p-value
Age (years)  ≤ 65 1.00        
   > 65 3.56 2.78, 4.53 96.42 (1)  < 0.001
Gender Female 1.00     1.00    
  Male 1.35 1.13, 1.61 11.03 (1) 0.001 1.53 1.20, 1.96 11.91 (1) 0.001
Smoking Status Non-smoker 1.00        
  Smoker 1.16 0.91, 1.48 1.47 (1) 0.225
Comorbidity     260.9 (2)  < 0.001    4.65 (2) 0.098
No comorbidity 1.00     1.00    
1 comorbidity 2.94 2.40, 3.61 106.8 (1)b  < 0.001b 1.36 1.03, 1.79 4.91 (1)b 0.031b
 ≥ 2 comorbidities 4.95 4.03, 6.08 232.2 (1)b  < 0.001b 1.09 0.80, 1.49 0.41 (1)b 0.576 b
Worst case classification     1179.8 (4)  < 0.001    98.45 (4)  < 0.001
Stage 1 1.00     1.00    
Stage 2 11.91 6.85, 20.72 77.04 (1)b  < 0.001b 6.50 3.61, 11.69 38.93 (1)b  < 0.001b
Stage 3 27.14 15.67, 47.03 138.6 (1)b  < 0.001b 4.07 2.11, 7.84 17.64 (1)b  < 0.001b
Stage 4 138.14 77.59, 245.9 280.4 (1)b  < 0.001b 10.38 5.08, 21.19 41.27 (1)b  < 0.001b
Stage 5 1356.93 605.6, 3040.6 307.0 (1)b  < 0.001b 37.06 13.04, 105.3 44.96 (1)b  < 0.001b
White blood cell     80.70 (2)  < 0.001    25.35 (2)  < 0.001
Normal range 1.00        
Out of normal range 3.05 2.38, 3.93 75.72 (1)  < 0.001b 1.23 0.76, 1.97 0.35 (1)b 0.555b
Not tested 0.65 0.47, 0.91 6.45 (1) 0.011b 0.19 0.09, 0.37 21.93 (1)b  < 0.001b
Platelets     24.91 (2)  < 0.001
Normal range 1.00        
Out of normal range 1.58 1.24, 2.01 13.55 (1)  < 0.001b     
Not tested 0.61 0.44, 0.85 8.49 (1) 0.004b     
Neutrophils     109.0 (2)  < 0.001    14.81 (2) 0.001
Normal range 1.00     1.00    
Out of normal range 3.48 2.78, 4.35 119.3 (1)  < 0.001b 2.31 1.51, 3.53 15.34 (1)b  < 0.001b
Not tested 1.29 1.00, 1.66 3.95 (1) 0.047b 1.18 0.34, 4.33 0.06 (1)b 0.803b
Lymphocytes     40.81 (2)  < 0.001    10.88 (2) 0.004
Normal range 1.00     1.00    
Out of normal range 3.34 2.33, 4.69 44.63 (1)  < 0.001b 2.04 1.18, 3.51 6.47 (1)b 0.011b
Not tested 1.14 0.88, 1.47 7.01 (1) 0.317b 4.21 1.08, 16.38 3.53 (1)b 0.060b
C-reactive protein     439.9 (2)  < 0.001    57.26 (2)  < 0.001
Normal range 1.00     1.00    
Out of normal range 14.49 11.12, 18.87 392.5 (1)  < 0.001b 3.34 2.33, 4.78 48.38 (1)b  < 0.001b
Not tested 3.46 2.83, 4.22 148.6 (1)  < 0.001b 2.32 1.75, 3.08 45.69 (1)b  < 0.001b
Duration of hospitalization     246.2 (3)  < 0.001    52.91 (1)  < 0.001
7 days or less 1.00     1.00    
8 to 11 days 1.62 1.20, 2.19 9.97 0.002 1.89 1.26, 2.86 9.25 (1) 0.002
12- 16 days 3.01 2.26, 4.01 56.47  < 0.001 2.59 1.74, 3.86 21.76 (1)  < 0.001
17 days or more 6.10 4.64, 8.03 167.1  < 0.001 3.81 2.57, 5.67 44.16 (1)  < 0.001
Use of anti-viral agents Not administered 1.00        
Administered 22.77 18.51, 28.02 1121.9 (1)  < 0.001 6.38 4.68, 8.70 150.5 (1)  < 0.001
Use of anti-malarial agents Not administered 1.00        
Administered 6.46 5.27, 7.92 408.78 (1)  < 0.001 1.63 1.19, 2.25 9.35 (1) 0.002
Use of anti-fungal agents Not administered 1.00        
Administered 20.27 10.09, 40.74 96.02 (1)  < 0.001
Corticosteroid therapy Not administered 1.00     1.00    
Administered 38.70 22.73, 65.91 306.6 (1)  < 0.001 3.05 1.48, 6.25 10.15 (1) 0.001
ICU/HDU admission No 1.00     1.00    
Yes 71.41 42.45, 120.1 558.3 (1)  < 0.001 2.73 1.34, 5.58 8.05 (1) 0.005
Oxygen therapy No 0.00        
Yes 22.29 17.71, 28.05 799.9 (1)  < 0.001
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ICU/HDU Intensive Care Unit/High Dependency Unit
  2. aLikelihood ratio test
  3. bWald test