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Table 4 Antibiotics and related treatments for COVID-19 patients during admission and hospitalization

From: The landscape of antibiotic usage among COVID-19 patients in the early phase of pandemic: a Malaysian national perspective

Variable Admission, n (%)
n = 524a
Hospitalization, n (%)
n = 690a
Number of antibiotic prescribed per patient 1 430 (82.1) 467 (67.7)
2 69 (13.2) 116 (16.8)
3 16 (3.1) 52 (7.5)
4 5 (1.0) 24 (3.5)
5 2 (0.4) 15 (2.3)
6 0 (0.0) 11 (1.6)
7 1 (0.2) 1 (0.1)
8 1 (0.2) 2 (0.3)
9 0 (0.0) 2 (0.3)
Fluoroquinolones Ciprofloxacin 1 (0.2) 4 (0.4)
Moxifloxacin 1 (0.2) 1 (0.1)
Cephalosporins Fourth generation: cefepime 12 (1.8) 49 (4.3)
Third generation: ceftriaxone 81 (12.3) 139 (12.3)
Third generation: cefoperazone 1 (0.2) 0 (0.0)
Third generation: ceftazidime 6 (0.9) 16 (1.4)
Second generation: cefuroxime 5 (0.8) 11 (1.0)
First generation: cephalexin 1 (0.2) 2 (0.2)
First generation: cefazolin 1 (0.2) 2 (0.2)
Macrolides Erythromycin 3 (0.5) 3 (0.3)
  Azithromycin 64 (9.7) 94 (8.3)
Glycopeptides Vancomycin 4 (0.6) 20 (1.8)
Polymyxins Colistin 2 (0.3) 19 (1.7)
Polymyxin B 1 (0.2) 10 (0.9)
Β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 375 (56.7) 428 (37.8)
Piperacillin/tazobactam 53 (8.0) 151 (13.3)
Ampicillin/sulbactam 16 (2.4) 43 (3.8)
Penicillin Amoxicillin 3 (0.5) 6 (0.5)
Cloxacillin 7 (1.1) 19 (1.7)
Tetracycline Doxycycline 2 (0.3) 9 (0.8)
Lincosamides Clindamycin 2 (0.3) 4 (0.4)
Co-trimoxazole   4 (0.6) 16 (1.4)
Carbapenem Imipenem 0 (0.0) 4 (0.4)
Meropenem 12 (1.8) 79 (7.0)
Nitroimidazoles Metronidazole 4 (0.6) 4 (0.4)
Corticosteroid usage (n = 4043)   124 (3.1)
Oxygen therapy (n = 4043) Non-invasive 221 (5.4) 324 (8.0)
Invasive 50 (1.2) 135 (3.3)
  1. aTotal number of patients prescribed antibiotic(s)