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Table 3 Clinical characteristic of COVID-19 patients, (n = 4043)

From: The landscape of antibiotic usage among COVID-19 patients in the early phase of pandemic: a Malaysian national perspective

Variables   n (%) Antibiotic use^ p-value*
Symptoms of presentation Cough 1620 (40.1) 457 (28.2)  < 0.001
Fever 1565 (38.7) 433 (27.7)  < 0.001
Sore throat 713 (17.6) 149 (20.9) 0.005
Rhinorrhoea 550 (13.6) 104 (18.9) 0.272
Dyspnoea 284 (7.0) 142 (50.0)  < 0.001
Diarrhoea 279 (6.9) 100 (35.8)  < 0.001
Myalgia 217 (5.4) 52 (24.0) 0.007
Malaise 183 (4.5) 72 (38.7)  < 0.001
Anosmia 155 (3.8) 10 (6.5)  < 0.001
Headache 154 (3.8) 26 (16.9) 0.898
Arthralgia 114 (2.8) 29 (25.4) 0.019
Nausea/vomiting 100 (2.5) 38 (38.0)  < 0.001
Ageusia 38 (0.9) 3 (7.9) 0.125#
Abdominal pain 36 (0.9) 13 (36.1) 0.003
Chest pain 50 (1.2) 21 (42.0)  < 0.001
Skin rash 9 (0.2) 2 (22.2) 0.659#
Conjunctivitis 9 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 0.374#
Wheezing 6 (0.1) 3 (50.0) 0.104#
Ear pain 5 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 0.168#
Haemorrhage 3 (0.1) 3 (100.0)  < 0.005#
Clinical severity stage on admission# Stage 1 1634 (40.4) 64 (3.9)  < 0.001
Stage 2 1487 (36.8) 244 (16.4)
Stage 3 644 (15.9) 186 (28.9)
Stage 4 221 (5.5) 145 (69.0)
Stage 5 57 (1.4) 51 (17.1)
Worst clinical stage# Stage 1 1345 (33.3) 16 (1.2)  < 0.001
Stage 2 1347 (33.3) 154 (11.4)
Stage 3 896 (22.2) 200 (22.3)
Stage 4 287 (7.1) 166 (60.1)
Stage 5 168 (4.2) 157 (93.5)
Out of normal range FBC (on admission) White blood cells (n = 3661) 302 (8.3) 111 (15.9)  < 0.001
Haemoglobin (n = 3661) 146 (4.0) 65 (9.3)  < 0.001
Hematocrit (n = 3638) 2486 (68.3) 271 (39.3)  < 0.001
Platelets (n = 3661) 417 (11.4) 102 (14.6)  < 0.001
Neutrophil count (n = 3548) 413 (11.6) 152 (21.8)  < 0.001
Lymphocyte count (n = 3573) 141 (4.0) 55 (7.9)  < 0.001
Out of normal range renal function test (on admission) Serum creatinine (n = 3493) 2025 (58.0) 367 (52.6) 0.005
Blood urea nitrogen (n = 3505) 678 (19.3) 228 (32.7)  < 0.001
Sodium (n = 3507) 469 (13.4) 230 (33.0)  < 0.001
Potassium (n = 3500) 855 (24.4) 186 (26.6)  < 0.001
Out of normal range CRP (n = 2522) 346 (13.7) 188 (26.9)  < 0.001
Use of anti-fungal agents 50 (1.2) 40 (80.0)  < 0.001
Use of anti-malarial agents 1935 (47.9) 570 (29.5)  < 0.001
Use of anti-viral agents 1020 (33.6) 549 (53.8)  < 0.001
Oxygen therapy 459 (11.4) 329 (71.7)  < 0.001
Corticosteroid therapy 124 (3.1) 108 (87.1)  < 0.001
Admission to ICU/HDU 192 (4.8) 176 (91.7)  < 0.001
Duration of hospitalization, median (IQR) 11.00 (9.00)    < 0.001§
Patient outcome Alive 3966 (98.1) 631 (15.9)  < 0.001
Death 77 (1.9) 67 (87.0)
  1. #1: asymptomatic, 2: symptomatic, no pneumonia, 3: symptomatic, pneumonia, 4: symptomatic, pneumonia, requiring supplemental oxygen, 5: critically ill with multi-organ involvement
  2. IQR interquartile range; FBC full blood counts; CRP C-reactive protein; ICU Intensive Care Unit; HDU High Dependency Unit
  3. ^ Antibiotic use during hospitalization
  4. # Fisher's Exact test
  5. * Chi-Square test
  6. § Mann–Whitney U test