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Table 2 Assessment of study participants (pharmacists and students) knowledge about coronavirus pandemic (n = 869)

From: Knowledge and perceptions of pharmacists’ readiness during coronavirus pandemic: the case of United Arab Emirates

Statements Correct answer, n (%)  
Total n = 869 Students n = 382 Pharmacists n = 404 P-value#
One way of transmission of coronavirus is respiratory droplets from person to person among close contacts 623 (93.8) 301 (93.2) 321 (94.4) 0.802
Coronavirus can be transmitted after touching surfaces that were contaminated with the virus 607 (91.3) 298 (92.0) 308 (90.6) 0.796
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen can decrease the risk of complications when used during viral infections 399 (60.3) 145 (45.0) 253 (74.6)  < 0.001*
Fevers/ Dry cough/shortness of breath are associated with coronavirus 642 (97.0) 313 (97.5) 328 (96.5) 0.727
Muscle aches and gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea/vomiting/diarrhea) are not associated with coronavirus 384 (57.7) 140 (43.2) 244 (71.8)  < 0.001*
Hand washing with soap and water for 20 s is enough to clean the hands and protect from spreading the infection 548 (82.7) 258 (79.9) 289 (85.3) 0.045*
Using steroids does not increase vulnerability to Coronavirus infection 241 (36.3) 81 (25.1) 160 (47.2)  < 0.001*
In general, the use of autoimmune disease treatments increases the susceptibility to get infected with the coronavirus 387 (58.3) 164 (50.6) 223 (65.8)  < 0.001*
Hydroxychloroquine has not been used as a preventative therapy against coronavirus infection 256 (38.7) 94 (29.1) 161 (47.8)  < 0.001*
Azithromycin has been used along with hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of the coronavirus infection cases 311 (46.8) 97 (29.9) 214 (63.1)  < 0.001*
Oseltamivir has not been used in the management of coronavirus infection cases 168 (25.3) 55 (17.0) 113 (37.3)  < 0.001*
Protein calorie malnutrition impairs host immunity (particularly the T-cell system) resulting in increased opportunistic infections 317 (47.0) 145 (44.9) 171 (50.9) 0.022*
Patients should eat food that contains Vitamin C and D to boost their immunity 620 (93.5) 298 (92.0) 321 (95.0) 0.003*
Eating food such as mushrooms and garlic is beneficial for the immune system 487 (73.7) 233 (71.9) 253 (75.3) 0.005*
Exercise causes antibodies and white blood cells to circulate in the body more rapidly detecting infections at an early stage 441 (66.7) 218 (67.3) 222 (66.1) 0.009*
The short-term rise in body temperature during and right after exercise increases bacterial growth, which will lower the body's ability to fight the infection 388 (58.7) 171 (52.9) 216 (64.1) 0.002*
Not smoking and decreasing stress help support the immune system 624 (94.5) 303 (94.1) 320 (95.0) 0.751
Sunlight activates T-helper cells hence boosts immunity 399 (60.5) 175 (54.3) 224 (66.5)  < 0.001*
You need to keep a distance of at least 3 m (10 feet) when counseling patients during a pandemic 168 (25.4) 68 (21.1) 100 (29.7) 0.001*
The highest risk patients in acquiring the coronavirus infection are elderly (> 65), immune-compromised and children under the age of 9 61 (9.3) 29 (9.0) 3 2(9.5) 0.062
  1. *significant at ≤ 0.05 significance level
  2. #Using Chi-square test, *significant at ≤ 0.05 significance level