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Table 5 Multivariable logistic regression of the factors associated with the pharmacist’s willingness to administer influenza vaccine in their pharmacies

From: Exploring determinants of community pharmacist-led influenza vaccination in a Middle Eastern country: a national web-based cross-sectional study

  Willingness to administer influenza vaccines  
  No Yes P-value aOR 95% C.I. for aOR
n (%) n (%) Lower Upper
Age 0.002    
 More than 40 years old 37 (28.7%) 92 (71.3%) 1    
 40 years old or less 53 (20.6%) 204 (79.4%) 0.001 3.106 1.597 6.040
Education level 0.012    
 BS pharmacy 60 (26.2%) 169 (73.8%) 1    
 More than BS degree (PharmD, Master, PhD…) 36 (19.7%) 147 (80.3%) 0.025 2.022 1.093 3.741
Previous experience in immunization 0.043    
 No 31 (32.30%) 65 (67.7%) 1    
 Yes 65 (20.6%) 251 (79.4%) 0.007 2.725 1.320 5.627
Geographical location 0.041    
 Rural 38 (28.8%) 94 (71.2%)     
 Urban 58 (20.7%) 222 (79.3%) 0.039 1.542 1.219 4.627
Number of hours pharmacist is working per week 0.006    
 0–24 h 35 (37.6%) 58 (62.4%) 1    
 More than 24 h 61 (19.1%) 258 (80.9%) 0.022 2.341 1.131 4.845
Number of hours pharmacy is open per week 0.047    
 Less than 50 h 6 (33.3%) 12 (66.7%) 1    
 50–120 h 87 (24%) 276 (76%) 0.259 2.157 0.568 8.199
 7 days 24/24 3 (9.7%) 28 (90.3%) 0.029 7.993 1.238 11.604
Attitude towards immunization 0.006    
 Negative 20 (66.7%) 10 (33.3%) 1    
 Positive 75 (19.6%) 307 (80.4%) 0.041 3.014 1.872 10.422
Attitudes towards provision of influenza vaccine by community pharmacists  < 0.001    
 Negative 30 (60%) 20 (40%) 1    
 Positive 65 (18%) 297 (82%)  < 0.001 13.721 4.889 38.507
Patient privacy concern 0.01    
 No 57 (20.1%) 227 (79.9%) 1    
 Yes 38 (29.7%) 90 (70.3%) 0.011 0.553 0.079 0.983
Time and cost needed for professional development and training 0.01    
 No 54 (23.6%) 175 (76.4%) 1    
 Yes 41 (22.4%) 142 (77.6%) 0.019 0.551 0.172 0.918
Pharmacists are less trusted by patients to provide such service 0.012    
 No 64 (26.2%) 180 (73.8%) 1    
 Yes 31 (18.5%) 137 (81.5%) 0.008 0.399 0.203 0.784
Financial reimbursement or adequate remuneration concern  < 0.001    
 No 9 (13.6%) 57 (86.4%) 1    
 Yes 86 (24.9%) 260 (75.1%)  < 0.001 0.182 0.088 0.377
Requirement of formal certification in vaccine administration  < 0.001    
 No 22 (12%) 161 (88%) 1    
 Yes 73 (31.9%) 156 (68.1%)  < 0.001 0.075 0.020 0.279
  1. n frequency, % percentage, aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, P-value < 0.05 is considered statistically significant