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Table 2 Community pharmacists responses to influenza vaccine knowledge items

From: Exploring determinants of community pharmacist-led influenza vaccination in a Middle Eastern country: a national web-based cross-sectional study

   Incorrect Correct I don’t know
#   n (%) n (%) n (%)
Domain 1: General knowledge about vaccines
 K1 Vaccines are critical to the prevention and control of infectious diseases outbreaks 3 (0.7%) 409 (99.3%) 0 (0%)
 K2 The ingredients of the vaccine include: the antigen, adjuvants, preservatives, and stabilizers 6 (1.5%) 375 (91%) 31 (7.5%)
 K3 Vaccines are safe and serious problems from the vaccine are very rare 20 (4.9%) 383 (93%) 9 (2.2%)
 K4 Every vaccine must go through extensive and rigorous testing before it can be introduced 6 (1.5%) 402 (97.6%) 4 (1%)
 K5 Following the introduction of a vaccine, close monitoring continues to detect any unexpected adverse side effects and assess the effectiveness 22 (5.3%) 377 (91.5%) 13 (3.2%)
Domain 2: Specific Knowledge about influenza vaccine
 K6 An annual seasonal flu vaccine is the best way to help protect against flu 38 (9.2%) 358 (86.9%) 16 (3.9%)
 K7 Flu vaccines cause antibodies to develop in the body about two weeks after vaccination and provide vaccinations 8 (1.9%) 404 (98.1%) 0 (0%)
 K8 Quadrivalent flu vaccines protect against four different flu viruses: an influenza A (H1N1) virus, an influenza A (H3N2) virus, and two influenza B viruses 107 (26%) 202 (49%) 103 (25%)
 K9 A trivalent flu shot made using an adjuvant (an ingredient that helps create a stronger immune response), approved for people 65 years of age and older 46 (11.2%) 292 (70.9%) 74 (18%)
 K10 Influenza vaccination doesn’t increase the risk of being infected with the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus or any other respiratory virus 56 (13.6%) 300 (72.8%) 56 (13.6%)
 K11 Flu vaccine should be taken before flu viruses begin spreading in the community 7 (1.7%) 384 (93.2%) 21 (5.1%)
 K12 Vaccination could continue to be offered throughout the flu season, even into January or later 25 (6.1%) 342 (83%) 45 (10.9%)
 K13 People who get a seasonal flu vaccine and still get sick with flu symptoms 112 (27.2%) 187 (45.4%) 113 (27.4%)
Domain 3: Side effects of the vaccines
 K14 Common side effects from a flu shot include soreness, redness, and/or swelling where the shot was given, headache (low grade), fever, nausea, muscle aches, and fatigue 48 (11.7%) 291 (70.6%) 73 (17.7%)
 K15 The risk of an allergic reaction can be decreased by effective screening prior to vaccination 43 (10.4%) 316 (76.7%) 53 (12.9%)
 K16 Providers should report any clinically significant adverse event occurring after administration of the vaccine even if they are unsure whether the vaccine caused the event 3 (0.7%) 400 (97.1%) 9 (2.2%)
 K17 Flu vaccine side effects are generally mild and go away on their own within a few days 3 (0.7%) 403 (97.8%) 6 (1.5%)
 K18 The flu shot, like other injections, can occasionally cause fainting 85 (20.6%) 283 (68.7%) 44 (10.7%)
 K19 Life-threatening allergic reactions to flu shots are very rare 10 (2.4%) 386 (93.7%) 16 (3.9%)
 K20 Signs of serious allergic reaction can include breathing problems, hoarseness or wheezing, hives, paleness, weakness, a fast heartbeat, or dizziness 23 (5.6%) 318 (77.2%) 71 (17.2%)
Domain 4: Precautions and contraindications
 K21 Anaphylactic reaction to a previous dose of vaccine or a vaccine component is a contraindication to further doses of the same vaccine or to the same component in other vaccines 7 (1.7%) 387 (93.9%) 18 (4.4%)
 K22 Multiple sclerosis is a not a contraindication to influenza vaccine 55 (13.3%) 240 (58.3%) 117 (28.4%)
Domain 5: People at risk of influenza vaccination
 K23 Children aged 6 months through 4 years (59 months) should take influenza vaccines 30 (7.3%) 382 (92.7%) 0 (0%)
 K24 Pregnant women and people with certain chronic health conditions can get a flu shot 37 (9%) 375 (91%) 0 (0%)
 K25 Children younger than 6 months of age are too young to get a flu should not get flu shot 30 (7.3%) 382 (92.7%) 0 (0%)
 K26 Annual influenza immunization is recommended for all health care professionals in contact with individuals in high-risk groups 29 (7.1%) 383 (92.9%) 0 (0%)