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Table 4 Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses of factors associated with regulatory compliance

From: Regulatory compliance among over-the-counter medicine sellers facilities within the Upper East Region of Ghana

Predictors Regulatory compliance Bivariate regression Multiple regression
  Non-compliant (N = 109) Compliant (N = 45) OR 95% CI p-value AOR 95% CI p-value
  n (%) n (%)
Facility location
 Rural 54 (85.7) 9 (14.3) Ref    Ref   
 Urban 55 (60.4) 36 (39.6) 3.93 1.73–8.93 0.001 4.2 1.74–10.17 0.001
Knows of name of law of pharmacy law
 No 105 (72.4) 40 (27.6)       
 Yes 3 (100.0) 0 (0.0)    0.999    
Qualified personnel on premises
 No 3 (100.0) 0 (0.0)       
 Yes 106 (70.2) 45 (29.8)    0.999    
Staff trained in less than a year
 No 40 (87.0) 6 (13.0) Ref    Ref   
 Yes 69 (63.9) 39 (36.1) 3.77 1.47–9.68 0.006 2.78 1.02–7.62 0.046
Ever received prior notification
 No 54 (79.4) 14 (20.6) Ref    Ref   
 Yes 55 (64.0) 31 (36.0) 2.17 1.04–4.53 0.038 1.28 0.53–3.08 0.587
Ever made contribution in cash or kind
 No 74 (75.5) 24 (24.5) Ref    Ref   
 Yes 35 (62.5) 21 (37.5) 1.85 0.91–3.76 0.090 1.73 0.71–4.23 0.229
Regulatory visit done
 No 4 (100.0) 24 (24.5)       
 Yes 105 (70.0) 45 (30.0)    0.999    
Owner of the facility available
 No 71 (74.0) 25 (26.0) Ref      
 Yes 38 (65.5) 20 (34.5) 1.5 0.74–3.03 0.266    
  1. OR, Odds Ratio; AOR, Adjusted Odds Ratio; CI confidence interval; Bivariate logistic regression—Wald test p-value of < 0.2 considered for inclusion in the multivariate model; Statistical significance set at p ≤ 0.05; Regulatory compliance is a composite variable of three indicators for regulatory practices (retention of medicine supplier’s invoices and receipts on-premises), licensing and registration requirements (appropriate signage), and equipment and material requirements (availability of reference material)