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Table 4 Factors associated with the presence of class D and/or X pDDIs

From: Potential drug–drug interactions in patients with cardiovascular diseases: findings from a prospective observational study

Variables pDDIs (D and/or X) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
No. (%)
OR (95%CI) p-value OR (95%CI) p-value
Gender      
 Female 102 (77.3) Referent  
 Male 138 (82.1) 1.353 (0.767–2.385) 0.296
Age (years)      
 < 60 147 (80.2) Referent  
 ≥ 60 93 (79.5) 0.949 (0.532–1.692) 0.859
Hospital      
 BMCH 123 (82.0) Referent  
 SPH 117 (78.0) 0.737 (0.432–1.418) 0.237
Residence      
 Rural 117 (83.0) Referent  
 Urban 123 (77.4) 0.701 (0.394–1.246) 0.226
Nationality      
 Pakistani 210 (78.7) Referent   Referent  
 Afghan 30 (90.9) 2.714 (0.799–9.216) 0.109 2.337 (0.604–9.042) 0.219
Smoking      
 Non-smokers 135 (76.3) Referent   Referent  
 Ex-smokers 21 (87.5) 2.178 (0.619–1.755) 0.225 2.435 (0.618–9.591) 0.203
 Active smokers 84 (84.8) 1.742 (0.910–3.335) 0.094 1.757 (0.831–3.714) 0.14
Type of CVD      
 STEMI + NSTEMI 150 (96.2) Referent   Referent  
 Others 90 (62.5) 0.067 (0.028–0.161)  < 0.001 0.053 (0.021–0.132)  < 0.001
Comorbidity      
 No 96 (80.0) Referent  
 Yes 144 (80.0) 1.000 (0.561–1.782) 1
Number of comorbidities      
 0 96 (80.0) Referent  
 1 78 (81.3) 1.083 (0.549–2.139) 0.818
 2 51 (77.3) 0.850 (0.410–1.762) 0.662
 3 15 (83.3) 1.250 (0.335–4.669) 0.74
Hypertension      
 No 145 (78.8) Referent  
 Yes 95 (81.9) 1.217 (0.674–2.195) 0.515
Diabetes mellitus      
 No 177 (79.7) Referent  
 Yes 63 (52.6) 1.068 (0.557–2.048) 0.844
Anemia      
 No 224 (80.6) Referent  
 Yes 16 (72.7) 0.643 (0.240–1.720) 0.379
Other comorbidities      
 No 207 (81.2) Referent  
 Yes 33 (73.3) 0.638 (0.307–1.325) 0.228
Length of hospital stay (days)      
 ≤ 3 120 (81.6) Referent  
 04-Jul 96 (76.2) 0.720 (0.401–1.293) 0.271
 > 7 24 (88.9) 1.800 (0.505–6.414) 0.365
Number of drugs prescribed      
 6–9 105 (77.8) Referent   Referent  
 10–12 90 (78.9) 1.071 (0.584–1.964) 0.823 1.674 (0.818–3.427) 0.159
 > 12 45 (88.2) 2.143 (0.834–5.505) 0.113 4.187 (1.427–12.285) 0.009
  1. CI confidence interval; CVD cardiovascular disease; NSTEMI non-ST elevated myocardial infarction, pDDI potential drug–drug interaction; OR odds ratio; STEMI ST-elevated myocardial infarction