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Table 3 Drug pairs involved in class X and D pDDIs and their potential consequences

From: Potential drug–drug interactions in patients with cardiovascular diseases: findings from a prospective observational study

Category Drug interacting pair Frequency Potential consequence
X Albuterol + carvedilol 15 Diminished bronchodilatory effects of albuterol
Alprazolam + orphenadrine 3 Increased CNS depressant effects of orphenadrine
Clarithromycin + ivabradine 3 Increased risk of ivabradine toxicity
enoxaparin + rivaroxaban 3 Increased risk of bleeding
Orphenadrine + dimenhydrinate 3 Increased potential for CNS depression
tramadol + nalbuphine 3 May diminish the analgesic effect of tramadol
D Aspirin + enoxaparin 229 Increased risk of bleeding
Clopidogrel + enoxaparin 214 Increased risk of bleeding
Clopidogrel + omeprazole 94 Decreased clopidogrel effectiveness and therapeutic failure
Clopidogrel + esomeprazole 6 Decreased clopidogrel effectiveness and therapeutic failure
Aspirin + rivaroxaban 6 Increased risk of bleeding
Insulin + sitagliptin 6 Increased risk of hypoglycemia
Atorvastatin + diltiazem 3 Increased risk of myositis, rhabdomyolysis and hepatotoxicity
Atorvastatin + clarithromycin 3 Increased serum concentration of atorvastatin may lead to rhabdomyolysis
Clarithromycin + verapamil 3 Decreased metabolism and increased therapeutic effects of verapamil
Warfarin + amiodarone 3 Increased risk of bleeding
Warfarin + meloxicam 3 Increased risk of bleeding
Digoxin + amiodarone 3 Increased concentration of digoxin and possible toxicity
Domperidone + escitalopram 3 Increased risk of QT interval prolongation
Furosemide + meloxicam 3 May decrease the diuretic effect of furosemide
Tramadol + dimenhydrinate 3 Increased CNS depressant effect of tramadol