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Table 3 Determinants of knowledge and perception of self-medication practice among respondents (n = 866)

From: Prevalence, knowledge and perception of self-medication practice among undergraduate healthcare students

Variables Knowledge on self-medication Unadjusted odds ratio Adjusted odds ratio
Good (%) Poor (%) OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Gender
 Male 214 (51.1) 205 (48.9) 1 0.015*   0.020*
 Female 265 (59.3) 182 (40.7) 1.395 (1.066–1.825) 1.431 (1.059–1.935)
Age-group (years)
 ≤ 20 ref 223 (55.1) 182 (44.9) 1 0.890   0.642
 > 20 256 (55.5) 205 (44.5) 1.019 (0.779–1.333) 0.909 (0.607–1.361)
Department
 Nursing ref 97 (62.6) 58 (37.4) 1    
 Pharmacy 135 (49.1) 140 (50.9) 0.577 (0.386–0.862) 0.007* 0.621 (0.401–0.961) 0.033*
 Medicine and surgery 247 (56.7) 189 (43.3) 0.781 (0.536–1.139) 0.199 1.046 (0.685–1.598) 0.834
Year of study
 Year 1 69 (55.2) 56 (44.8) 1   1  
 Year 2 72 (55.8) 57 (44.2) 1.025 (0.625–1.682) 0.922 0.989 (0.593–1.650) 0.966
 Year 3 93 (49.7) 94 (50.3) 0.803 (0.510–1.265) 0.344 0.781 (0.488–1.251) 0.304
 Year 4 117 (62.6) 70 (37.4) 1.357 (0.856–2.150) 0.194 1.624 (0.950–2.775) 0.076
 Year 5 103 (56.0) 81 (44.0) 1.032 (0.653–1.630) 0.892 1.244 (0.692–2.236) 0.466
 Year 6 25 (46.3) 29 (53.7) 0.274 (0.700–1.328) 0.274 0.691 (0.321–1.485) 0.344
  Perception on self-medication Unadjusted odds ratio Adjusted odds ratio
Good (%) Poor (%) OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Gender
 Male 282 (67.3) 137 (32.7) 1 0.935   0.780
 Female 302 (67.6) 145 (32.4) 1.012 (0.761–1.345) 0.956 (0.697–1.312)
Age-group (years)
 ≤ 20 ref 278 (68.6) 127 (31.4) 1 0.478   0.232
 > 20 306 (66.4) 155 (33.6) 0.902 (0.678–1.200) 0.772 (0.506–1.179)
Department
 Nursing ref 111(71.6) 44 (28.4) 1    
 Pharmacy 165 (60.0) 110 (40.0) 0.595 (0.389–0.909) 0.016* 0.577 (0.365–0.913) 0.019*
 Medicine and surgery 308 (70.6) 128 (29.4) 0.954 (0.636–1.431) 0.819 0.958(0.611–1.500) 0.850
Year of study
 Year 1 88 (70.4) 37 (29.6) 1   1  
 Year 2 88 (68.2) 41(31.8) 0.902 (0.529–1.539) 0.706 0.829 (0.480–1.433) 0.502
 Year 3 120 (64.2) 67 (35.8) 0.753 (0.463–1.225) 0.253 0.740 (0.449–1.220) 0.238
 Year 4 131(70.1) 56 (29.9) 0.984 (0.599–1.614) 0.948 1.226 (0.694–2.165) 0.483
 Year 5 115 (62.5) 69 (37.5) 0.701 (0.431–1.140) 0.152 0.895 (0.484–1.656) 0.725
 Year 6 12 (22.2) 42 (77.8) 1.472 (0.697–3.108) 0.311 1.582 (0.669–3.742) 0.297
  1. *Statistically significant (p < 0.05) CI confidence interval