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Table 4 Cost of healthcare resource utilisation in control and intervention group patients at baseline and at 6-month follow-up

From: General practitioner practice-based pharmacist input to medicines optimisation in the UK: pragmatic, multicenter, randomised, controlled trial

Outcome measures Control   Intervention   p value
Baseline
(6 months pre-study)
6-month follow-up Difference# Baseline
(6 months pre-study)
6-month follow-up Difference#
n = 161*
(48.8%)
n = 161*
(48.8%)
n = 169*
(51.2%)
n = 169*
(51.2%)
Cost of unplanned hospital admissionsa (total) 83,483 65,853   64,873 43,425   
 Mean ± SD 518.5 ± 1438.0 409.0 ± 1446.6 109.5 ± 2027.7 383.9 ± 1224.1 257.0 ± 979.9 126.9 ± 1453.7 0.305g
0.230 h
0.743i
 Median [IQR] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0]
Cost of A&E attendancesb (total) 6525 8265   6235 5365   
 Mean ± SD 40.5 ± 86.1 51.3 ± 112.8 − 10.8 ± 127.2 36.9 ± 77.6 31.7 ± 64.2 5.2 ± 86.5 0.326g
0.433h
0.333i
 Median [IQR] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0]
Cost of face-to-face consultations in General practicec (total) 21,865 21,101   21,752 19,361   
 Mean ± SD 135.8 ± 102.2 131.1 ± 106.2 4.8 ± 111.7 128.7 ± 101.2 114.6 ± 94.1 14.2 ± 103.4 0.511g
0.081h
0.467i
 Median [IQR] 112 [66–186] 108 [56–182] 10 [− 56–56] 108 [46–200] 87 [36–174] 10 [− 40–72]
Cost of telephone consultations in general practiced (total) 4919.0 4916.0   5262.0 3564.5   
 Mean ± SD 30.6 ± 52.4 30.5 ± 47.8 0.0 ± 43.6 31.1 ± 47.4 21.1 ± 32.0 10.0 ± 38.5 0.619g
 < 0.001 h
0.007i
 Median [IQR] 18.0 [0.0–36.0] 18.0 [0.0–39.8] 0.0 [− 18.0–16.8] 18.0 [0.0–52.5] 7.5 [0.0–28.0] 0.0 [0.0–19.5]
Cost of total general practice consultation (total) 26,784.0 26,017.0   27,014.0 22,925.5   
 Mean ± SD 166.4 ± 130.3 161.6 ± 131.1 4.8 ± 127.8 159.8 ± 125.8 135.7 ± 106 24.2 ± 115.7 0.551g
0.014h
0.194i
 Median [IQR] 138.0 [73.0–218.0] 133.0 [72.0–222.0] 10.0 [− 59.0–65.5] 136.0 [56.0–236.5] 107.5 [52.0–200.0] 15.0 [− 43.5–90.0]
Cost of outpatient visitse (total) 72,480 72,480   77,920 68,800   
 Mean ± SD 450.2 ± 465.9 450.2 ± 467.2 0.0 ± 360.9 461.1 ± 496.8 407.1 ± 488.8 54.0 ± 418.57 0.934g
0.074h
0.136i
 Median [IQR] 320 [160–640] 320 [0–640] 0 [− 160–160] 320 [160–640] 320 [0–640] 0 [− 160–320]
Total healthcare resource utilisation costf (total) 189,272 172,615   176,042 145,184   
 Mean ± SD 1175.6 ± 1619.3 1072.1 ± 1635.0 103.5 ± 2104.6 1041.7 ± 1446.7 859.1 ± 1235.2 182.6 ± 1579.2 0.276g
0.032 h
0.491i
 Median [IQR] 552 [313.5–1251.0] 572 [208.0–1168.3] 21.0 [− 267.5–416.5] 618 [279.0–1124.0] 477 [232.3–927.3] 95.5 [− 241.8–472.0]
  1. Bold values denote statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level
  2. *From 356 patients, 14 patients’ healthcare resource utilisation data were not available, seven patients were deceased, five patients had 20 or more days of length of stay at baseline or 6-month follow-up
  3. #Calculated as utilisation at baseline minus utilisation at end of study
  4. aCost of non-elective inpatient stay (short stay) i.e. 1–2 days £608, 3–6 days £3079, non-elective excess bed day (long stay more than 6 days, attracted cost for every day over of £437)
  5. bA&E attendances £145
  6. cGP £36, Pharmacist £15, nurse practitioner £10
  7. dGP £18, pharmacist £7.5, nurse practitioner £5
  8. eOutpatient visit £160
  9. fAll healthcare resource utilisation cost including intervention cost. The 1st, 2nd, 3rd appointment costs were £15, £8.5 and £7.5
  10. gWilcoxon signed rank test (within control group, between baseline and 6-month follow-up),
  11. hWilcoxon signed rank test (within intervention group, between baseline and 6-month follow-up)
  12. iMann–Whitney U test (between control vs intervention for the cost difference from baseline).