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Table 3 Healthcare resource utilisation in control and intervention group patients at baseline and at 6-month follow-up

From: General practitioner practice-based pharmacist input to medicines optimisation in the UK: pragmatic, multicenter, randomised, controlled trial

Outcome measures Control   Intervention   p value
Baseline
(6 months pre-study)
6-month follow-up Difference# Baseline
(6 months pre-study)
6-month follow-up Difference#
n = 161*
(48.8%)
n = 161*
(48.8%)
n = 169*
(51.2%)
n = 169*
(51.2%)
Number of unplanned hospital admissions (total) 46 33   40 21   
 Mean ± SD 0.3 ± 0.67 0.2 ± 0.58 0.1 ± 0.8 0.2 ± 0.51 0.1 ± 0.40 0.1 ± 0.6 0.279b
0.023c
0.501d
 Median [IQR] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0]
Number of patients admitted (total) 34 24   34 17   
Length of stay (days) (total) 148 97 - 118 74 -  
 Mean ± SD 4.4 ± 4.4 4.0 ± 3.9 - 3.5 ± 4.1 4.4 ± 3.8 - 0.733e
 Median [IQR] 3.0 [1.0–7.0] 2.5 [1.0–6.5] - 1.5 [1.0–4.3] 3.0 [1.0–7.5] -
Number of A&E attendances (total) 45 57   43 37   
 Mean ± SD 0.3 ± 0.6 0.4 ± 0.8 -0.1 ± 0.9 0.3 ± 0.5 0.2 ± 0.4 0.0 ± 0.6 0.326b
0.433c
0.333d
 Median [IQR] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0]
Number of face-to-face consultations in general practicea (total) 827 741   791 722   
 Mean ± SD 5.1 ± 4.2 4.6 ± 3.8 0.5 ± 3.9 4.7 ± 3.4 4.3 ± 3.4 0.4 ± 3.4 0.087b
0.069c
0.953d
 Median [IQR] 4 [2–7] 4 [2–6] 1 [-2–1] 4 [2–7] 4 [2–6] 1 [-2–2.5]
Number of telephone consultations in general practicea (total) 300 300   321 239   
 Mean ± SD 1.9 ± 3.1 1.9 ± 2.9 0.0 ± 2.6 1.9 ± 2.7 1.4 ± 2.0 0.5 ± 2.4 0.481b
0.006c
0.020d
 Median [IQR] 1 [0–2] 1 [0–3] 0 [-1–1] 1 [0–3] 1 [0–2] 0 [0–1]
Total (face and telephone) number of General Practice consultationsa 1127 1041   1112 961   
 Mean ± SD 7.0 ± 5.9 6.5 ± 5.3 0.5 ± 5.1 6.6 ± 4.9 5.7 ± 4.3 0.9 ± 4.4 0.284b
0.007c
0.227d
 Median [IQR] 6 [3–9] 5 [3–9] 0 [− 2–3] 6 [3–9] 5 [2–8] 1 [− 2–4]
Number of outpatient visits (total) 453 453   487 430   
Mean ± SD 2.8 ± 2.9 2.8 ± 2.9 0.0 ± 2.3 2.9 ± 3.1 2.5 ± 3.1 0.3 ± 2.6 0.841b
0.074c
0.136d
Median [IQR] 2 [1–4] 2 [0–4] 0 [− 1–1] 2 [1–4] 2 [0–4] 0 [− 1–2]
  1. Bold values denote statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level
  2. *From 356 patients, 14 patients’ healthcare resource utilisation data were not available, seven patients were deceased, five patients had 20 or more days of length of stay at baseline or 6-month follow-up
  3. #Calculated as utilisation at baseline minus utilisation at end of study
  4. aConsultation with general practitioner, pharmacist and nurse practitioner
  5. bWilcoxon signed rank test (within control group, between baseline and 6-month follow-up)
  6. cWilcoxon signed rank test (within intervention group, between baseline and 6-month follow-up)
  7. dMann–Whitney U test (between control vs intervention for the utilisation difference from baseline)
  8. eMann–Whitney U test (between control vs intervention at 6-month follow-up)