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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics and clinical indications for antibiotic in pre-ASP and post-ASP phases-ASP

From: An antibiotic stewardship program in a surgical ICU of a resource-limited country: financial impact with improved clinical outcomes

Variable Pre-ASP intervention (n = 123) (%) Post-ASP intervention (n = 125) (%) p value
Demographic characteristics
 Age (years)* 51 (11.2) 53 (9.5) 0.87
 Gender (male) 88 (72) 93 (74) 0.68
Comorbidities**
 Cardiovascular illnesses 21 (17) 23 (18) 0.86
 Chronic hepatobiliary illnesses 12 (10) 13 (10)  
 Chronic renal illnesses 8 (7) 7 (6)  
 Diabetes mellitus 30 (24) 32 (26)  
 Malignancies 0 0  
 Chronic neurological/neuropsychiatric illnesses 3 (2) 4 (3)  
 Chronic respiratory illnesses 5 (4) 4 (3)  
 ≥ 2 chronic medical illnesses 8 (7) 7 (6)  
 No comorbid condition 36 (29) 35 (28)  
Clinical indications for antibiotics in SICU
 Prophylaxis 58 (47) 55 (44) 0.78
 Empirical 43 (35) 45 (36)  
 Therapeutic 22 (18) 25 (20)  
Surgeries specialty involved
 General surgery 53 (43) 56 (45) 0.75
 Neurosurgery 42 (34) 40 (32)  
 Orthopedic 15 (12) 18 (14)  
 Obs/gyn 7 (6) 6 (5)  
 ENT 4 (3) 3 (2)  
 Vascular 2 (2) 2 (2)  
  1. SICU surgical intensive care unit, ASP antibiotic stewardship program,Obs/gyn obstetrics and gynecological, ENT ears, nose and throat, ns not significant
  2. *Mean (SD)
  3. **Comorbidities were coded from the World Health Organization, International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10) [23]