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Table 1 Summary of practice, research projects and recognitions that have impacted pharmaceutical care practice or policy

From: Impact of a global leader on pharmaceutical practice and policy around the world

Title Brief description Countries involved Impact References
“Therapeutic Outcomes Monitoring” (TOM) project TOM is a model for increasing pharmacists’ role in primary health care, based on a continuous quality improvement system applied to PhC to detect, prevent and resolve DRPs in asthma patients. This project was conducted as a controlled intervention study (grouped at the pharmacy level) and various outcomes were measured to assess the impact of the intervention (e.g. HRQoL, PEFR, satisfaction). Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Florida (USA), Germany, Iceland, Northern Ireland, The Netherlands These controlled intervention studies had a huge impact on implementing pharmacy practice research at the university level in many countries. Furthermore, results achieved led to recognise pharmacist in DMPs and clinical practice guidelines. Today, there are specific programmes, often remunerated, for pharmacists to support inhaled medication used, namely in Belgium, in Denmark, to name a few. [2,3,4,5]
Elderly Medication Analysis (OMA project) Study of the effect of PhC in the elderly (> 65 years) using 4 or more different drugs and living independently. Designed as a controlled study with randomisation at the pharmacy level and involved 1290 intervention patients (selected in 104 pharmacies) and 1164 controls (selected from 86 pharmacies). Outcomes measured included HRQoL, patient satisfaction and knowledge, provider satisfaction (GP and pharmacist), drug use (including adherence) and use of health services. Sweden, Portugal, Northern Ireland, Denmark, Germany, Republic of Ireland, The Netherlands This was a landmark study as it was the first multicentred study in European community pharmacies. It was influential in the field of pharmacy practice research. [2, 3, 6]
Review article Discusses the concept of PhC care from a European perspective and clarifies the status of PhC research and implementation. It discusses if PhC can be part of the practice of pharmacy. Europe It suggests changes in the pharmacy curriculum so that pharmacists can acquire new knowledge and skills. It encourages countries to standardise procedures adopted to guarantee every patient receives PhC. [7]
Review article Describes European developments in the implementation of and research into PhC, focusing on the community pharmacy. Europe Paper by invitation of the Harvard Health Policy Review (USA). [8]
Opinion paper Establishes the need and the rationale for using a classification of DRPs to avoid negative consequences for patients. Germany Motivated the adoption of such classifications in pharmacy practice in both primary and secondary care. [9]
Terminology papers This sequence of publications establishes the foundations for understanding concepts of PhC, clinical pharmacy and medication review, highlighting the boundaries and similarities between concepts, while reflecting the evolution in practices. Worldwide, with a special focus in Europe These definitions are used by academics and researchers worldwide to support teaching and educational activities. [10,11,12,13]
Research paper Development of a PCNE-DRP classification. World Currently being used in Belgium, China, Germany, Ghana, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and Taiwan. [14,15,16]
Review paper Describes the healthcare system context, pharmacy practice and range of services offered in pharmacies in the Netherlands. The Netherlands  Used widely as reference to frame various research or practice based studies undertaken in this counrty  [17]
Review paper Describes the healthcare system context, pharmacy practice and range of services offered in pharmacy in Peru. Peru (South America) Used widely as reference to frame various research or practice based studies undertaken in this counrty [18]
Research paper Describes the healthcare system context, pharmacy practice and range of services offered in pharmacy in Europe. Europe Provides a framework for countries to benchmark themselves against each other. [19]
Research paper Describes the medication review practices in Europe, implementation and remuneration models associated. Europe Provides an assessment of the implementation of medication review in Europe, enabling benchmark and analysis of the strong points of some of the countries described in more detail. [20]
Editor-in-Chief of the Int J Clin Pharm Published high-quality manuscripts that enhanced the visibility of pharmaceutical care and clinical pharmacy in various countries of the world. Worldwide These publications have provided evidence-based practice to motivate policy changes in many countries, including in some cases changes in the scope of practice or remuneration models for pharmacy. Pharmacy practice commentary on social media (22 July 2020)