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Table 5 Univariate and multivariate analysis of factors associated with COVID-19 awareness score

From: Identification of the awareness level by the public of Arab countries toward COVID-19: cross-sectional study following an outbreak

Factors COVID-19 awareness score
Univariate Multivariate
OR 95% CI p value OR 95% CI p value
Male 1.073 0.941 1.224 0.292 ------- ------- ------- -------
Age 1.018 1.013 1.023 < 0.001 1.019 1.012 1.026 < 0.001
Health status 1.006 0.988 1.025 0.056 ------- ------- ------- -------
Same nationality as country of residence 0.906 0.818 1.004 0.059 ------- ------- ------- -------
Awareness campaign 1.327 1.192 1.477 < 0.001 1.212 1.081 1.358 0.001
Education (Ref. primary school/elementary)
 Secondary school 1.828 1.169 2.860 0.008 1.740 1.096 2.763 0.019
 Diploma 2.578 1.623 4.094 < 0.001 2.090 1.297 3.368 0.002
 University degree 2.328 1.516 3.575 < 0.001 1.969 1.265 3.066 0.003
 Post-graduate degree 2.728 1.756 4.240 < 0.001 2.206 1.393 3.493 0.001
Country of residence (Ref. Jordan)
 Palestine 0.830 0.645 1.069 0.149 ------- ------- ------- -------
 Qatar 1.041 0.871 1.245 0.656 ------- ------- ------- -------
 UAE 0.975 0.853 1.115 0.716 ------- ------- ------- -------
 KSA 0.807 0.697 0.933 0.004 0.751 0.617 0.913 0.004
 Egypt 0.846 0.582 1.231 0.382 ------- ------- ------- -------
 Other 0.986 0.753 1.291 0.916 ------- ------- ------- -------
Employment (Ref. student)
 Unemployed 1.352 1.162 1.573 < 0.001 ------- ------- ------- -------
 Employee in health sector 1.749 1.485 2.060 < 0.001 1.259 1.025 1.547 0.028
 Employee in non-health sector 1.198 1.037 1.384 0.014 ------- ------- ------- -------
  1. p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant, “---” not included in the multivariate logistic regression model
  2. OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval