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Table 2 Exploratory factor analysis of the 18-item awareness scale toward COVID-19

From: Identification of the awareness level by the public of Arab countries toward COVID-19: cross-sectional study following an outbreak

Items Factors
1 2 3
Isolation and quarantine of infected people are effective for preventing the spread of COVID-19. 0.662 0.154 0.199
Reporting symptoms of COVID-19 to local health authorities is important to prevent further disease transmission. 0.631 0.099 0.218
Frequent hand washing before preparing and/or eating foods is essential to prevent further COVID-19 transmission. 0.620 − 0.107 − 0.307
Hand washing after contact with possible contaminated materials or surfaces is important to prevent further COVID-19 transmission. 0.619 − 0.116 − 0.292
Consultation of a healthcare provider when you have a cough or fever or difficulty in breathing is critical for preventing COVID-19 spreading. 0.595 − 0.100 − 0.168
Travel bans to/from the areas of the disease should be implemented by the government to prevent COVID-19 spreading. 0.572 0.111 0.262
Traveling to China is considered as a risk of novel coronavirus infection. 0.547 0.057 0.321
Avoiding contact with sick people can prevent spread of disease. 0.543 0.193 0.159
Isolation of COVID-19 patients is important to achieve effective adoption of infection control measures. 0.482 0.218 0.168
Avoiding close contact with person who has an active respiratory symptom is essential to prevent further transmission of the disease. 0.440 0.121 0.219
Hand washing with soap and water for at least 20 s can prevent COVID-19 transmission. 0.432 − 0.007 0.068
Antibiotics are effective in COVID-19 treatment. 0.063 0.811 − 0.128
COVID-19 can be treated with the available antiviral medications. 0.016 0.728 − 0.035
Vaccination of COVID-19 is available as a protective measure. 0.095 0.697 − 0.112
There is no treatment for COVID-19 until now. 0.108 0.466 0.203
COVID-19 spread could be prevented by avoiding live animal contact. 0.257 − 0.026 0.674
The main source of novel coronavirus is animal. 0.066 0.063 0.577
Chinese goods are considered as a source of exposure to novel coronavirus. 0.021 − 0.262 0.401
  1. Extraction method, principal component analysis; rotation method, Varimax with Kaiser normalization