|Term||Operational definition||Measurement unit|
|Transparency||See price transparency in Table 1.||Qualitative description, as presented in literature|
|Efficiency||AHRQ’s definition: Avoiding waste, including waste of equipment, supplies, ideas, and energy.|
Allocative efficiency: Allocating resources in such a way as to provide the optimal mix of goods and services to maximise the benefits to society
Technical efficiency: Using the least amount of resources or the right combination of inputs to produce a given mix of goods and services
|As measured and presented in literature or qualitative description, as presented in literature|
Qualitative measures of process efficiency, e.g. timeliness, resource-intensiveness
|Shortage||EMA’s definition: a shortage of a medicinal product occurs when there are changes to either demand or supply of the medicine, so that clinical need can no longer be met. A medicine shortage causes temporary unavailability. The total stock across all levels of the national supply chain, across all geographical regions, cannot meet demand during a medicine shortage||As measured and presented in literature or qualitative description, as presented in literature|
|Quality of pharmaceutical products||Whether products are substandard or falsified (SF)|
Substandard: Also called “out of specification”, these are authorized medical products that fail to meet either internationally accepted quality standards or specifications, or both.
Falsified: Medical products that deliberately/fraudulently misrepresent their identity, composition or source.
|Occurrence of SF products|
|Safety||IOM’s definition: the prevention of harm to patients||As measured and presented in literature|
|Unethical conduct||Business or professional conduct that contravenes social norms or social responsibilities||Qualitative description, as presented in literature|
|Illegal conduct||Business or professional conduct that contravenes the law||Qualitative description, as presented in literature|
|Equity||Differences in [access or] health that are avoidable and also considered unfair or unjust||Qualitative assessment, including assessing differences in the relative effect size of the intervention; assessing indirectness of evidence to disadvantaged populations and/or settings.|