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Table 1 Select results on oxytocin quality in LMICs

From: Oxytocin quality: evidence to support updated global recommendations on oxytocin for postpartum hemorrhage

Author, Year Location Type of Publication Sample Size Selected Results
Lambert et al., 2018 [8] Democratic Republic of the Congo Peer-reviewed article Where available, 20 ampoules from 15 facilities (256 ampoules tested in total) 80% out specification
Anyakora et al., 2018 [9] Nigeria Peer-reviewed article 159 ampoules tested 74.2% out of specification
National Institute of Biologics, Ministry of Health and Family Affairs of India, 2017 [10] India Government report 58 samples drawn from government sources 41.3% not of standard quality
M. Lui et al., 2016 [11] Nepal, Vietnam Peer-reviewed article 42 samples from 35 pharmacies 31% out of specification
Torloni et al., 2016 [7] 15 countries Peer-reviewed article (systematic literature review) 8 studies assayed a total of 559 oxytocin samples 45.6% median prevalence of oxytocin samples did not pass quality testing as defined by authors; 36.0% out of specification
World Health Organization, 2015 [12] Burkina Faso, Kenya, Madagascar, Nepal, Nigeria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Vietnam, Zimbabwe WHO report 22 batches from 15 manufacturers 64% out of specification
Stanton et al., 2014 [13] India Peer-reviewed article 193 ampoules 36.2% out of specification
Ghana Food and Drugs Authority (FDA) Laboratory Services Department, 2013 [14] Ghana Government report 169 ampoules Assay: 55.6% out of specification (2% of these had 0% API); 10% failed assay but passed sterility
Sterility: 40% of samples failed sterility but passed assay; 45% of samples failed both assay and sterility tests 97.5% of samples failed sterility, assay, or both
Stanton et al., 2012 [15] Ghana Peer-reviewed 46 ampoules 73.9% out of specification; 4.3% expired
Hogerzeil et al., 1993 [16] Zimbabwe Peer-reviewed 6 samples from the same manufacturer from five district hospitals 1 of 6 samples expired; of remaining 5 samples, 80% out of specification