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Table 4 Median consumer prices (adjusted to 10 ml 100 IU/ml) in Bengaluru’s private retail pharmacies, by insulin type, place of manufacture and company’s origin

From: Challenges constraining availability and affordability of insulin in Bengaluru region (Karnataka, India): evidence from a mixed-methods study

a. By place of manufacture
  Combined (imported + domestic) Manufactured outside India Manufactured in India p-value
Human insulin
 Vial USD 4.97 | INR 323.5
(n = 187)
-- USD 4.97 | INR 323.5
(n = 187)
 
 Cartridge USD 12.24 | INR 796.6
(n = 9)
USD 12.24 | INR 796.6
(n = 7)
USD 13.55 | INR 881.6
(n = 2)
0.0278a
 Pen USD 17.98 | INR 1170.0
(n = 16)
USD 17.98 | INR 1170.0
(n = 16)
--
--
 
Analogue insulins
 Vial USD 17.96 | INR 1168.8
(n = 6)
USD 17.96 | INR 1168.8
(n = 6)
 
 Cartridge USD 27.56 | INR 1794.0
(n = 12)
USD 27.56 | INR 1794.0
(n = 12)
 
 Pen USD 33.20 | INR 2160.0
(n = 49)
USD 32.47 | INR 2113.3
(n = 33)
USD 42.66 | INR 2775.6
(n = 16)
< 0.0001a
b. By company’s origin
  Combined (Non-Indian + Indian) Non-Indian Company Indian Company  
Human insulin
 Vial USD 4.97 | INR 323.5
(n = 187)
USD 5.15 | INR 335.2
(n = 105)
USD 4.86 | INR 316.7
(n = 82)
< 0.0001a
 Cartridge USD 12.24 | INR 796.6
(n = 9)
USD 12.24 | INR 796.6
(n = 9)
 
 Pen USD 17.98 | INR 1170.0 (n = 16) USD 17.98 | INR 1170.0
(n = 16)
 
Analogue insulin
 Vial USD 17.96 | INR 1168.8
(n = 6)
USD 17.96 | INR 1168.8 (n = 6)  
 Cartridge USD 27.56 | INR 1794.0
(n = 12)
USD 28.60 | INR 1861.3
(n = 18)
USD 23.32 | INR 1517.6 (n = 3) 0.0142a
 Pen USD 33.20 | INR 2160.0
(n = 49)
USD 33.20 | INR 2160.0
(n = 49)
 
  1. aThe difference in median prices in the groups (1. Manufactured outside (imported) versus in India (domestic), and 2. Company’s origin being non-Indian versus Indian) are statistically significant at α-significance level of 0.05 (Wilcoxon rank sum test)