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Table 2 Availability of insulin products in the private and public sectors in Bengaluru region

From: Challenges constraining availability and affordability of insulin in Bengaluru region (Karnataka, India): evidence from a mixed-methods study

Insulin type Molecule description Strength Percentage availability
Private-sector Public-sector
Retail pharmacies [N = 30] Hospital pharmacies [N = 5] Hospital pharmacies [N = 5]
Human insulin Soluble Insulin 40 IU/mla 83.3% (n = 25) 80.0% (n = 4) 80.0% (n = 4)
100 IU/ml 33.3% (n = 10) 80.0% (n = 4) 20.0% (n = 1)
Isophane Insulin 40 IU/mla 51.5% (n = 17) 100.0% (n = 5) 40.0% (n = 2)
100 IU/ml 16.7% (n = 5) 20.0% (n = 1) 0.0%
Biphasic Isophane Insulin: 30% Soluble 70% Isophane Insulin 40 IU/mla 93.3% (n = 28) 100.0% (n = 5) 80.0% (n = 4)
100 IU/ml 66.7% (n = 20) 80.0% (n = 4) 40.0% (n = 2)
Biphasic Isophane Insulin: 50% Soluble 50% Isophane Insulin 40 IU/ml 20.0% (n = 6) 40.0% (n = 2) 20.0% (n = 1)
100 IU/ml 3.3% (n = 1) 0.0% 0.0%
Analogue insulin Insulin Aspart 100 IU/ml 33.3% (n = 10) 60.0% (n = 3) 20.0% (n = 1)
Biphasic insulin aspart: 30% insulin aspart & 70% protamine crystallized aspart 100 IU/ml 36.7% (n = 11) 20.0% (n = 1) 20.0% (n = 1)
Insulin glargine 100 IU/ml 66.7% (n = 20) 60.0% (n = 3) 60.0% (n = 3)
Insulin glulisine 100 IU/ml 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Insulin detemir 100 IU/ml 3.3% (n = 1) 20.0% (n = 1) 0.0%
Insulin lispro 100 IU/ml 6.7% (n = 2) 20.0% (n = 1) 0.0%
Insulin lispro biphasic: 25% insulin lispro 75% lispro protamine 100 IU/ml 13.3% (n = 4) 0.0% 0.0%
Insulin lispro biphasic: 50% insulin lispro 50% lispro protamine 100 IU/ml 20.0% (n = 6) 60.0% (n = 3) 20.0% (n = 1)
Animal Insulin Porcine soluble insulin 40 IU/ml 20.0% (n = 1)
Porcine soluble insulin 100 IU/ml
Mean availability of human insulins listed in 2015 India’s essential medicines list 76.1% 93.3% 66.7%
  1. aInsulins listed on 2015 India’s essential medicines list