Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Application of the structured set of indicators for assessing governance of the promotion of prescription medicines and anti-corruption in Ghana

From: Assessing national governance of medicine promotion: an exploratory study in Ghana to trial a structured set of indicators

Indicator Ghana
a) Governance of Prescription Medicines
 National Medicines Policy Yes [22]
 National Medicines List Yes [23]
  - Date of most recent update Not specified
  - Does it specify the manufacturer name? Yes
  - Does it specify the country of manufacture? No
 Essential Medicines List Yes [24]
 Medicine regulations include pharmaceutical promotion and advertising Yes [25]
 Medicines Regulatory Authority (MRA) Yes - FDA
 National code/guideline for the ethical promotion of prescription pharmaceuticals Yes [26]
  Does the code explicitly mention?
   - Healthcare professionals No
   - Medical institutions No
   - Patient organizations No
   - Medical representatives No
   - The general public Yes
   - Media Yes
  Does it cover the following forms of promotion?
   - Direct-to-consumer advertising Yes
   - Disease awareness campaigns No
   - Interactions with medical representatives No
   - Speakers fees and consultancies No
   - Continuing education sponsorship No
   - Prescription samples No
   - Patient information No
   - Packaging, labeling and package inserts No
   - Promotion of off-label indications Yes
   - Gift-giving Yes
  Is pre-approval required? Yes
  Does the pre-approval submission require the following information: [27]
   - International non-proprietary name (INN) Yes
   - Brand name Yes
   - Company name Yes
   - Major indications for use No
   - Adverse effects Yes
   - Contraindications No
   - Medicine interactions No
   - Cost No
  Is monitoring in force? Yes
  Is there a formal mechanism for lodging a complaint? No
  Are enforcement and sanctions stated? No
  Are violations publicly available? Yes
 Is there a government-sponsored, unbiased source of drug information? No
 National Pharmaceutical Industry Association Yes [28]
  - Represent multi-national manufacturers No
  - Represent national manufacturers Yes
  - Associated with IFPMA No
  - Code of conducts specific to ethical promotion No
b) Health Care Professional Codes and Regulations
 National Pharmacy College Code of Conduct specific to ethical promotion Yes [29]
 National Physician College Code of Conduct No [30]
c) Anti-Corruption Governance
 Signing of the UN Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) Yes [31]
 Signing of UN Convention on Human Rights 17/18 treaties [32]
 National Anti-Corruption Law(s) Yes [33]
 African Union Convention on Preventing and Combatting Corruption Yes [34]
 Economic Community of West African States Protocol on Corruption Yes [35]
 National Anti-Corruption Strategy Yes [36]
 National Anti-Corruption Commission Yes [37]
 National Law on Freedom of Information No
 Whistleblower Protection Yes [38]
 Transparency Laws No
 Code of Conduct for Civil Servants Yes [39]
 Ethical Principles for Civil Servants For GHS [40]
d) Indexes
 Corruption Perception Index (Transparency International) 40; 81/180 countries [41]
 Regional and/or National Indexes (if available) IIAG 65; 8/54 [42]