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Table 5 Factors that may influence medicines retail price of MPR > 2.5 in private healthcare sector in Malaysia

From: Association between medicine Price declaration by pharmaceutical industries and retail prices in Malaysia’s private healthcare sector

  MPR Univariate analysis (n = 2527) Multivariate analysis (n = 2527)
MPR ≤ 2.5 (n = 202),
n (%)a
MPR > 2.5 (n = 2325),
n (%)a
Crude OR (95% CI) Wald’s χ2 (df) P-value Adj. OR (95% CI) Wald’s χ2 (df) P-value
Condition
 Acute 99 (11.3) 774 (88.7) 1.00    1.00   
 Chronic 103 (6.2) 1551 (93.8) 1.93 (1.44, 2.57) 19.76 (1) <  0.001 2.05 (1.46, 2.70) 16.84 (1) <  0.001
Type of medicine
 Innovator brands 32 (3.6) 851 (96.4) 1.00    1.00   
 Generic 170 (10.3) 1474 (89.7) 0.33 (0.22, 0.48) 32.22 (1) <  0.001 0.24 (0.15, 0.37) 39.81 (1) <  0.001
Manufacturer
 Import 149 (8.8) 1542 (91.3) 1.00    1.00   
 Local 53 (6.3) 783 (93.7) 1.43 (1.03, 1.98) 4.61 (1) 0.032 3.86 (2.61,5.71) 45.88 (1) <  0.001
Region
 Peninsular 161 (8.7) 1686 (91.3) 1.00    1.00   
 East Malaysia 41 (6.0) 639 (94.0) 1.49 (1.04, 2.12) 4.83 (1) 0.028 1.84 (1.26, 2.68) 10.32 (1) <  0.001
Type of Facility
 Community Pharmacy 179 (8.3) 1984 (91.3) 1.00      
 Private Hospital 23(6.3) 341 (93.7) 1.34 (0.85, 2.09) 1.61 (1) 0.200
Location
 Urban 152(7.1) 1975 (92.9) 1.00    1.00   
 Rural 50(12.5) 350 (87.5) 0.54 (0.38, 0.76) 12.77 (1) <  0.001 0.48 (0.34, 0.69) 15.86 (1) <  0.001
Form
 Tablet 161(6.9) 2181 (93.1) 1.00    1.00   
 Other form 41(22.2) 144 (77.8) 0.26 (0.18, 0.38) 47.95 (1) <  0.001 0.20 (0.13, 0.32) 51.53 (1) <  0.001
PSD Wholesale 5.94 d 15.70 e 1.58 (1.27, 1.96) 17.29 (1) < 0.001 NS
PSD RRP 8.60 d 20.84 e 1.47 (1.25, 1.74) 20.96 (1) < 0.001 1.52 (1.17, 1.98) 10.03 (1) < 0.001
MPMS Wholesale 5.21 d 11.96 e 1.36 (1.09, 1.69) 7.17 (1) 0.001 0.72 (0.55, 0.93) 6.10 (1) 0.013
  1. Abbreviations: MPR median price range, OR odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, NS Non-significant, PSD Pharmaceutical Service Division, RRP Recommended Retail Price, MPMS Medicine PriceMonitoring Survey
  2. Notes: a The percentage is reported by row, adding up to 100% based on available information; d Median price over IRP; e IQR of price over IRP