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Table 2 Percentage of medicine price markup from declared wholesale and retail wholesale to median retail price

From: Association between medicine Price declaration by pharmaceutical industries and retail prices in Malaysia’s private healthcare sector

Type of medicine Year Number of medicines brands reviewed Number of pricing data from MPMS Percentage price markup (%)
From declared wholesalea to median retail priceb From median wholesaleb price to median retail priceb
Median 25th percentile 75th percentile Median 25th percentile 75th percentile
Innovator 2011 30 187 26.9 16.9 33.4 33.3 26.3 37.5
2012 12 103 14.8 3.0 32.7 33.32 39.5 28.6
2013 17 182 9.3 −6.3 29.6 38.9 33.3 45.8
2014 10 176 18.3 −5.3 33.3 32.9 30.9 33.3
2015 19 235 4.1 −2.9 32.8 33.4 29.4 47.1
Generic 2011 44 176 53.1 18.9 179.0 100.9 56.3 181.8
2012 22 105 109.2 39.5 284.1 138.0 70.4 308.2
2013 48 194 110.8 37.0 248.1 102.6 66.7 177.8
2014 68 383 95.1 23.2 200.8 117.9 65.5 255.9
2015 149 786 82.7 20.0 229.7 102.9 63.7 203.0
  1. Note: MPMS Medicine Price Monitoring Survey
  2. aDeclared wholesale = the wholesale price declared by the pharmaceutical industries to Pharmaceutical Service Division (PSD), Ministry of Health Malaysia
  3. bMedian wholesale and retail price = medicine price sampled by the MPMS from various community pharmacy and private hospitals in Malaysia