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Table 6 Univariate and multivariate analysis of factors associated with pre-dialysis controlled hypertension upon study completion (n = 145)

From: Hypertension control among euvolemic hypertensive hemodialysis patients in Malaysia: a prospective follow-up study

Variables Patients with pre-dialysis controlled hypertension on final visit
Number (%)
Univariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
p-value Multivariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
p-value
Yes No
Gender
 Female 20 (26.7) 55 (73.3) Reference    
 Male 22 (31.4) 48 (68.6) 1.260 (0.614-2.586) 0.528   
Age
  ≤ 40 3 (42.9) 4 (57.1) Reference    
 41-60 22 (26.5) 61 (73.5) 0.481 (0.100-2.321) 0.362   
  > 60 17 (30.9) 38 (69.1) 0.596 (0.120-2.962) 0.527   
BMI
 Underweight 3 (50) 3 (50) Reference   Reference  
 Normal 22 (24.4) 68 (75.6) 0.324 (0.061-1.720) 0.186 0.809 (0.123-5.330) 0.826
 Overweight 13 (31) 29 (69) 0.448 (0.080-2.526) 0.363 0.705 (0.084-5.927) 0.747
 Obese 4 (57.1) 3 (42.9) 1.333 (0.149-11.929) 0.797 4.775 (0.352-64.836) 4.775
Smoking status
 Current Smoker 12 (27.3) 32 (72.7) Reference    
 Non-Smoker 30 (29.7) 71 (70.3) 1.127 (0.512-2.480) 0.767   
Drug addiction
 Current drug addiction 8 (50) 8 (50) Reference   Reference  
 No drug addiction 34 (26.4) 95 (73.6) 0.358 (0.125-1.028) 0.056 0.492 (0.129-1.870) 0.298
Hemodialysis centers
 Private 20 (23.8) 64 (76.2) Reference   Reference  
 NGO 7 (29.2) 17 (70.8) 1.318 (0.478-3.630) 0.594 1.130 (0.302-4.224) 0.856
 Governmental 15 (40.5) 22 (59.5) 2.182 (0.955-4.985) 0.064 1.909 (0.601-6.062) 0.273
Vascular access
 Fistula 38 (28.1) 97 (71.9) Reference    
 Others 4 (40) 6 (60) 1.702 (0.455-6.368) 0.430   
Diabetes mellitus
 No 18 (37.5) 30 (62.5) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 24 (24.7) 73 (75.3) 0.548 (0.260-1.154) 0.113 0.415 (0.156-1.105) 0.078
Cardiovascular diseases
 No 26 (20.8) 99 (79.2) Reference    
 Yes 4 (20) 16 (80) 0.793 (0.269-2.340) 0.674   
Cerebrovascular accident
 No 37 (29.6) 88 (70.4) Reference    
 Yes 5 (25) 15 (75) 0.643 (0.170-2.434) 0.516   
Hyperlipidemia
 No 41 (32.8) 84 (67.2) Reference    
 Yes 7 (35.0) 13 (65) 0.830 (0.730-2.903) 0.830   
Gouty arthritis
 No 39 (30.7) 88 (69.3) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 3 (16.7) 15 (83.3) 0.451 (0.124-1.649) 0.229 1.312 (0.213-8.094)) 0.770
Others comorbiditiesa
 No 26 (25) 78 (75) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 16 (39) 25 (61) 1.920 (0.890-4.141) 0.096 1.865 (0.690-5.041) 0.219
ACE-I
 No 39 (29.3) 94 (70.7) Reference    
 Yes 3 (25) 9 (75) 0.803 (0.206-3.127) 0.752   
ARB
 No 31 (28.4) 78 (71.6) Reference    
 Yes 11 (30.6) 25 (69.4) 1.107 (0.487-2.519) 0.808   
CCB
 No 17 (16.7) 85 (83.3) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 25 (58.1) 18 (41.9) 6.296 (2.843-13.943) < 0.001 8.988 (3.140-25.728) < 0.001
Alpha antagonist
 No 40 (28.8) 99 (71.2) Reference    
 Yes 2 (33.3) 4 (66.7) 1.237 (0.218-7.027) 0.810   
Beta antagonist
 No 28 (27.2) 75 (72.8) Reference    
 Yes 14 (33.3) 28 (66.7) 1.339 (0.617-2.906) 0.460   
Diuretics
 No 34 (32.7) 70 (67.3) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 8 (19.5) 33 (80.5) 0.499 (0.208-1.196) 0.119 0.349 (0.108-1.132) 0.080
Other combination of antihypertensives
 No 36 (27.7) 94 (72.3) Reference    
 Yes 6 (40) 9 (60) 1.741 (0.578-5.241) 0.324   
Type of therapy
 Mono-therapy 24 (30.4) 55 (69.6) Reference    
 Multi-therapy 18 (27.3) 48 (72.7) 0.859 (0.417-1.772) 0.681   
Statins
 No 12 (30) 28 (70) Reference    
 Yes 30 (28.6) 75 (71.4) 0.933 (0.420-2.073) 0.865   
Phosphate binders
 No 5 (27.8) 13 (72.2) Reference    
 Yes 37 (29.1) 90 (70.9) 1.069 (0.356-3.212) 0.906   
  1. Analysis: Univariate and Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. All variables with p-value < 0.25 will be included in the multivariate analysis. OR Odds ratio, CI confidence interval, BMI Body mass index, NGO Non-governmental organization, aOther comorbidities: Blood clots, depression, asthma, osteoarthritis, pregnancy losses/birth defects and osteoporosis. ACE-I Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB Angiotensin receptor blocker, CCB Calcium channel blocker