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Table 1 Summary of studies included in the review

From: Investigating the association of proton pump inhibitors with chronic kidney disease and its impact on clinical practice and future research: a review

Author, year of study Country Study design Number of participants Outcomes assessed Results
Cho et al., 2018 [12] Korea Retrospective study 1284 CKD outcomes (incident CKD, incident CKD with progression and mild renal progression) No significant association between duration of PPI use and chronic kidney disease development (HR of heavy users, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.61–3.67),
Rodriguez-Poncelas et al., 2018 [15] Spain Population-based retrospective study 46,541 Incident CKD Higher doses of PPIs increased the risk of incident CKD (HR 1.92; 95% CI 1.00–6.19).
Hung et al., 2018 [13] Taiwan Population-based case-controlled study 16,704 Incidence of CKD Odds Ratio for CKD in PPI users was 1.41 compared to non-users of PPI
Klatte et al., 2017 [14] Sweden Retrospective study 114, 883 Progression of CKD (estimated by doubling of creatinine levels and reduction in glomerular filtration rate PPI use associated with raised creatine levels compared to HR receptor antagonists (1985 events; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05–1.51) as well as reduction in the estimated GFR by 30% or more (11,045 events; 1.26; 95% CI, 1.16–1.36).
Lazarus et al., 2016 [8] USA Prospective cohort study 10,482 Incidence of CKD Risk of CKD with PPI use was 1.39 (1.01–1.91) against no PPI use
Arora et al., 2016 [9] USA Retrospective study 99,269 Incidence of CKD PPI use against no PPI use 1.10 (1.04–1.16)
Xie et al., 2016 [10] USA Prospective cohort study 144,032 Incidence of CKD The risk of CKD associated with PPI was 1.28 (1.22–1.34) against no PPI use
Blank et al., 2014 [20] New Zealand Nested case-controlled study 572,661 Incidence of PPI-induced AIN The incidence rates and confidence intervals per 100,000 person-years were 11.98 (9.11–15.47) for current and 1.68 (0.91–2.86) for past users of PPIs
Simpson et al., 2006 [19] New Zealand Observational study (Reports and analysis) 15 Incidence of PPI-induced AIN The incidence of AIN was found to be in 8 per 100 000 patient years (95% confidence level 2.6–18.7)
Geevasinga et al., 2006 [18] Australia Retrospective case review 28 Incidence of PPI-induced AIN The study detected 18 cases of biopsy-proven PPI-induced AIN