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Table 3 Proposed minimum and maximum durations per R&D phase for SME antibiotic innovation for DRIVE-AB models

From: Insights into early stage of antibiotic development in small- and medium-sized enterprises: a survey of targets, costs, and durations

R&D Phase General Pharmaceutical Innovation Durations Sertkaya et al. [23] Proposed Minimum Duration Proposed Maximum Duration
Lead compound identification 1.5 years [22] (Used general pharmaceutical duration) 6 months 4 years
Lead compound optimization 2 years [22] (Used general pharmaceutical duration) 6 months 4 years
Preclinical testing 1 year [22] (Used general pharmaceutical duration) 1 year 2 years
Phase I clinical trials 33 months [17] 0.9 years 6 months 2 years
Phase II clinical trials 39 months [17] 0.8–1.5 years 1 year 4 years