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Table 6 Independent risk factors for prolonged treatment duration

From: Evaluating treatment outcomes and durations among cases of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Yemen: a prospective follow-up study

  Treatment duration Univariate OR (95% CI) Multivariate AOR (95% CI)
≤6 months >6 months
Sex Male 34 (29.8) 80 (70.2) Ref  
Female 23 (20.4) 90 (79.6) 0.539 (0.309–0.940) 1.623 (0.658–4.002)
Age, years ≤ 45 44 (24.9) 133 (75.1) Ref  
>45 13 (26) 37 (74) 0.873 (0.447–1.705)  
Area Urban 38 (25) 114 (75) Ref  
Rural 19 (25.3) 56 (74.7) 2.636 (1.48–4.695) 2.358 (1.250–4.433)
Education level Literate 34 (26.8) 93 (93.2) Ref  
Illiterate 23 (23) 77 (77) 0.972 (0.560–1.688)  
Occupation Employed 25 (27.8) 65 (72.2) Ref  
  Unemployed 32 (23.4) 105 (76.6) 0.442 (0.252–0.775) 0.633 (0.176–2.282)
BCG Yes 12 (26.1) 34 (73.9) Ref  
No 45 (24.9) 136 (75.1) 1.103 (0.554–2.196)  
Marital status Married 28 (21.9) 100 (78.1) Ref  
Unmarried 29 (29.3) 70 (70.7) 0.786 (0.450–1.370)  
Smoking habit No 44 (26.8) 120 (73.2) Ref  
Yes 13 (20.6) 50 (79.4) 2.648 (1.453–4.82) 2.015 (0.987–4.114)
Chewing khat a No 20 (23.8) 64 (76.2) Ref  
Yes 37 (25.9) 106 (74.1) 3.253 (1.720–6.152) 2.615 (1.201–5.691)
Monthly income (rialb) >10,000 19 (26) 54 (74) Ref  
≤10,000 38 (24.7) 116 (75.3) 0.421 (0.236–0.750) 0.744 (0.231–2.404)
Knowledge Good 51 (26.4) 142 (73.6) Ref  
Poor 6 (17.6) 28 (82.4) 1.411 (0.669–2.975)  
Stigma No 31 (24.4) 96 (75.6) Ref  
Yes 26 (26) 74 (74) 1.232 (0.710–2.136)  
Comorbidities No 50 (25.4) 147 (74.6) Ref  
Yes 7 (23.2) 23 (76.7) 1.323 (0.602–2.910)  
Family history of TB No 42 (28) 108 (72) Ref  
Yes 15 (19.5) 62 (80.5) 0.297 (0.667–1.214)  
Number of TB symptoms 3–4 3 (40) 7 (70) Ref  
≥5 54 (24.9) 163 (75.1) 2.156 (0.447–10.41)  
History of cough < 3 weeks 12 (30) 28 (70) Ref  
≥3 weeks 45 (24.1) 142 (75.9) 2.393 (1.04–5.485) 2.672 (1.053–6.782)
Radiography lesions Unilateral 41 (28.5) 103 (71.5) Ref  
Bilateral 16 (19.3) 67 (80.7) 2.021 (1.149–3.553) 2.134 (1.147–3.971
Lung cavitation No 0 (0) 50 (100) Ref  
Yes 57 (32.2) 120 (67.8) 1.652 (0.819–3.333)  
BMI, kg/m2 <18.5 38 (31.7) 88 (82.2) Ref  
≥18.5 19 (17.8) 88 (82.2) 1.345 (0.775–2.337)  
  1. Ref reference group, BMI body mass index, BCG Bacillus Calmette–Guerin, AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. akhat: a shrub that grows in parts of East Africa and Yemen, b rial: one dollar is approximately equivalent to 215 rial