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Table 4 Independent risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcomes

From: Evaluating treatment outcomes and durations among cases of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Yemen: a prospective follow-up study

  Treatment outcome n (%) Univariate OR (95% CI) Multivariate AOR (95% CI)
Successful Unsuccessful   
Sex Male 114 (76) 36 (24) Ref  
Female 113 (91.9) 10 (8.1) 0.470 (0.281–0.787) 0.248 (0.239–0.874)
Age, years ≤ 45 177 (83.5) 35 (16.5) Ref  
>45 50 (82) 11 (18) 1.210 (0.678–2.161)  
Area Urban 152 (81.3) 35 (18.7) Ref  
Rural 75 (87.2) 11 (12.8) 1.054 (0.630–1.763)  
Education level Literate 127 (82.5) 27 (17.5) Ref  
Illiterate 100 (84) 19 (16) 2.155 (1.22–3.801) 2.294 (1.272–4.137)
Occupation Employed 90 (79.6) 23 (20.4) Ref  
Unemployed 137 (85.6) 23 (14.4) 1.591 (0.982–2.575) 0.980 (0.379–2.573)
BCG vaccination Yes 46 (92) 4 (8) Ref  
No 181 (81.2) 42 (18.8) 1.651 (0.849–3.211)  
Marital status Married 128 (84.8) 23 (15.2) Ref  
Unmarried 99 (81.1) 23 (18.9) 0.822 (0.506–1.334)  
Smoking habit No 164 (85.9) 27 (14.1) Ref  
Yes 63 (76.8) 19 (23.2) 1.570 (0.943–2.613) 1.474 (0.867–2.578)
Chewing khat a No 84 (86.6) 13 (13.4) Ref  
Yes 143 (81.3) 33 (18.8) 1.397 (0.840–2.322)  
Income (rialb) >10,000 73 (81.1) 17 (18.9) Ref  
≤10,000 154 (84.2) 29 (15.8) 0.651 (0.397–1.068)  
Stigma No 127 (82.5) 27 (17.5) Ref  
Yes 100 (84) 19 (16) 0.683 (0.413–1.131)  
Knowledge Good (4–6) 193 (82.5) 41 (17.5) Ref  
Poor (1–3) 34 (87.2) 5 (12.8) 0.831 (0.401–1.725)  
BMI, kg/m2 <18.5 120 (83.3) 24 (16.7) Ref  
  ≥18.5 107 (82.9) 22 (17.1) 1.043 (0.646–1.685)  
Comorbid No 197 (86) 32 (14) Ref  
Yes 30 (68.2) 14 (31.8) 1.730 (0.981–3.044) 1.995 (1.108–3.590)
Family history of tuberculosis No 150 (81.5) 34 (18.5) Ref  
Yes 77 (86.5) 12 (13.5) 0.890 (0.525–1.509)  
  1. Ref reference group, BMI body mass index, BCG Bacillus Calmette–Guerin, AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. akhat: a shrub that grows in parts of East Africa and Yemen, b rial: one dollar is approximately equivalent to 215 rial