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Table 8 Essential medicines for children unapproved in the US, UK, and Japan without supporting evidence either in adults or children

From: Approval status and evidence for WHO essential medicines for children in the United States, United Kingdom, and Japan: a cross-sectional study

Name ATCa Therapeutic use Adult efficacyb Paediatric efficacyb Dosage Formc
Paromomycin A Leishmaniasis No evidence No evidence NA
Linezolid J Tuberculosis No evidence No evidence A
Morphine N Sedationd No evidence No evidence A
Amodiaquine P Malaria No evidence No evidence NA
Artemether P Malaria Inconclusive Inconclusive NA
Nifurtimox P African trypanosomiasis Inconclusive No evidence NA
Nifurtimox P American trypanosomiasis Inconclusive No evidence NA
Levamisole P Helminth infection Inconclusive No evidence NA
Benzyl benzoate P Scabies No evidence No evidence NA
  1. aAnatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification code: A, alimentary tract and metabolism; J, general anti-infectives for systemic use; N, nervous system; P, antiparasitic products
  2. bAdult or paediatric efficacy: Inconclusive, evidence is inconclusive
  3. cDosage Form: A, available; NA, not available
  4. dMorphine is listed in the EMLc as the drug of choice for the treatment of severe acute or chronic pain, which was acknowledged as approved in the three countries. However, efficacy of morphine for sedation has not been established or approved in any of the three countries. That is why the listing of morphine indicated to sedation as unapproved