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Table 5 Summary of core drug use indicator studies from developed and developing countries

From: Assessment of WHO/INRUD core drug use indicators in two tertiary care hospitals of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan

Indicators Study reference
Developed countries Developing countries
[14, 35] [38] [39] [40] [41] [9] [42] [26] [22] [43]
Average no. of drugs per encounter 2.4 0.7 2.9 2.6 2.2 2.5 2.2 2.4 3.0 2.2
% Generic 61.2 ---- 17.7 14.3 4.4 95.4 74 99.8 63.1 99
% Antibiotic 32.2 10.4 39.1 26.2 13.5 39.2 37 66 54.2 43
% Injection 2 0.0 9.1 8.3 1.6 9.9 11 2.4 38.0 18
% drugs EDL 99.2 ---- ---- 19.8 ---- 95.4 78 99.7 75.6 98.8
Average consultation time (minutes) 7.3 22.5 2.8 ---- ---- 7.1 5.8 4.4 6.1 3.7
Average dispensing time (seconds) 100 ---- 54.6 ---- ---- 47.4 17 234 18.1 37
% Drugs dispensed 99.6 ---- 97.9 ---- ---- 95.9 66 100 99.1 84.5
% Drugs labeled 10 ---- 66.9 ---- ---- 0.0 63 0.0 55.9 86.2
% Patient knowledge 79.3 70 26.9 ---- ---- 94 54 55 86.5 81.7
% EDL availability 90 ---- ----- ---- ---- 80 50 100 100 100
% Drugs in stock 59.2 ----- ------ ---- ---- 78.3 55 86.6 91.7 86.5
  1. Saudi Arabia [14, 35]; Sweden [38]; Kuwait [39]; Bahrain [40]; United Arab Emirates [41]; Egypt [9]; Brazil [42]; Cambodia [26]; Swaziland [22]; Mozambique [43]