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Table 1 Classification of pharmaceutical interventions and cost savings

From: Economic contributions of pharmaceutical interventions by pharmacists: a retrospective report in Japan

Intervention type

Cost savings

1. Avoidance of serious ADRs

Benefits paid by PMDA to sufferers of ADRs in 2013: USD $20,583,890

Number of incidents: 959

Average amount: $21,464

i.e., $21,400/case

2. Transvenous antimicrobial therapy interventions

$272.37/patient/day × 7 daysa = $1906.59/patient, i.e., $1900/patient

3. Switch from intravenous to oral administration

Difference in cost between intravenous and oral administration per day × days of oral administration

4. Interventions concerning cancer chemotherapy

5. Avoidance of drug interactions

6. Renal dosing recommendations

7. Intravenous drug compatibility

8. Confirmation of medication history (presurgical cessation of antiplatelet drugs)

9. Drug therapy consultation or recommendations

Likelihood that a general intervention leads to preventing an ADR ranges from 2.6 to 5.21 %

Most risky drug therapy: cancer chemotherapy

$21,464 × 5.21 % = $1118.27, i.e., $1120/case

Intermediate risky drug therapy: high-risk drugs defined by JSHP

$21,464 × 3.91 % = $839.24, i.e., $840/case

Normal drug therapy: others

$21,464 × 2.60 % = $558.06, i.e., $560/case

10. Monitoring recommendations

11. Ward rounds, multidisciplinary teamwork

12. Drug information

13. ADRs reported to PMDA

These types are not directly reflected in the cost estimation, i.e., $0

  1. aThe average number of days that anti-MRSA drugs were used at the study hospital
  2. Multiple interventions for a single patient were counted as one intervention
  3. ADR serious adverse drug reaction, PMDA Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, JSHP Japanese Society of Hospital Pharmacists