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Table 5 Association of satisfaction score of the health care providers to the area of practice

From: Attitude and satisfaction of health care providers towards clinical pharmacy services in Ethiopia: A post-deployment survey

  Ward Satisfied (n, %) Dissatisfied (n, %) AOR (95 % CI)
Current Clinical Pharmacists Activities in your setting Internal medicine 160 (70.0) 70 (30.0) 1.00
  Pediatrics 67 (61.0) 43 (39.0) 0.70 [0.43–1.14]
  Surgery 20 (53.0) 18 (47.0) 0.45 [0.22–0.93]*
  Emergency 16 (61.5) 10 (38.5) 0.67 [0.28–1.57]
  Outpatient department 35 (55.5) 28 (44.5) 0.55 [0.30–1.00]
  Gynecology/Obstetrics 15 (42.0) 21 (58.0) 0.30 [0.14–0.64]*
  Psychiatry 10 (59.0) 7 (42.0) 0.57 [0.20–1.60]
  Others 16 (55.0) 13 (45.0) 0.51 [0.22–1.17]
  Total 339 (62.0) 210 (38.0)  
Clinical pharmacists actively participate in ward rounds with the health care team Internal medicine 170 (74.0) 60 (26.0) 1.00
  Pediatrics 66 (60.0) 44 (40.0) 0.551 [0.33–0.90]*
  Surgery 21(55.0) 17 (45.0) 0.39 [0.18–0.80]*
  Emergency 14 (54.0) 12 (46.0) 0.38 [0.16–0.89]*
  Outpatient department 34 (54.0) 29 (46.0) 0.37 [0.20–0.67]*
  Gynecology/Obstetrics 19 (53.0) 17 (47.0) 0.37 [0.18–0.79]*
  Psychiatry 14 (82.0) 3 (18.0) 1.51 [0.41–5.51]
  Others 15 (52.0) 14 (48.0) 0.36 [0.15–0.88]*
  Total 353 (64.0) 196 (36.0)  
Clinical pharmacists provide timely information on drug availability Internal medicine 171 (74.0) 59 (26.0) 1.00
  Pediatrics 81 (74.0) 29 (26.0) 0.931 [0.55–1.57]
  Surgery 28 (74.0) 10 (26.0) 0.84 [0.38–1.88]
  Emergency 21 (80.8) 5 (19.0) 1.38 [0.49–3.87]
  Outpatient department 50 (79.0) 13 (21.0) 1.12 [0.56–2.25]
  Gynecology/Obstetrics 22 (61.0) 14 (39.0) 0.50 [0.23–1.05]
  Psychiatry 13 (76.5) 4 (23.5) 1.04 [0.32–3.37]
  Others 16 (55.0) 13 (45.0) 0.36 [0.15–0.82]*
  Total 402 (73.0) 147 (27.0)  
Clinical pharmacists provide information on the appropriate route of administration Internal medicine 176 (76.5) 54 (23.5) 1.00
  Pediatrics 78 (71.0) 32 (30.0) 0.70 [0.41–1.18]
  Surgery 26 (68.0) 12 (22.0) 0.53 [0.24–1.16]
  Emergency 24 (92.0) 2 (8.0) 3.52 [0.80–15.49]
  Outpatient department 50 (80.0) 13 (21.0) 1.10 [0.53–2.25]
  Gynecology/Obstetrics 18 (50.0) 18 (50) 0.26 [0.12–0.56]*
  Psychiatry 10 (59.0) 7 (41.0) 0.38 [0.137–1.09]
  Others 22 (76.0) 7 (24.0) 0.74 [0.29–1.89]
  Total 404 (73.5) 145 (26.0)  
Clinical pharmacists counsel patients during discharge*** Internal medicine 135 (59.0) 95 (41.0) 1.00
  Pediatrics 54 (49.0) 56 (51.0) 0.66 [0.41–1.06]
  Surgery 22 (58.0) 16 (42.0) 0.733 [0.35–1.52]
  Emergency 15 (58.0) 11 (42.0) 0.901 [0.39–2.08]
  Outpatient department 29 (46.0) 34 (54.0) 0.500 [0.27–0.91]*
  Gynecology/Obstetrics 16 (44.0) 20 (56.0) 0.463 [0.22–0.97]*
  Psychiatry 13 (76.5) 4 (23.5) 2.094 [0.65–6.72]
  Others 16 (55.0) 13 (45.0) 0.746 [0.32–1.70]
  Total 300 (55.0) 249 (45.0)  
Clinical pharmacists participate in dose calculation for patients Internal medicine 161 (70.0) 69 (30.0) 1.00
Pediatrics 77 (70.0) 33 (30.0) 1.01 [0.60–1.69]
Surgery 30 (79.0) 8 (21.0) 1.28 [0.54–3.04]
Emergency 16 (61.5) 10 (38.5) 0.59 [0.25–1.41]
Outpatient department 48 (76.0) 15 (24.0) 1.22 [0.62–2.43]
Gynecology/Obstetrics 17 (47.0) 19 (53.0) 0.32 [0.15–0.68]*
Psychiatry 13 (76.5) 4 (23.5) 1.16 [0.35–3.79]
Others 24 (83.0) 5 (18.0) 1.48 [0.52–4.16]
Total 386 (70.0) 163 (30.0)  
Clinical pharmacist identify and report adverse drug reactions Internal medicine 159 (69.0) 71 (31.0) 1.00
Pediatrics 71 (64.5) 39 (35.5) 0.80 [0.48–1.32]
Surgery 22 (58.0) 16 (42.0) 0.44 [0.20–0.94]*
Emergency 19 (73.0) 7 (27.0) 1.09 [0.43–2.76]
Outpatient department 43 (68.0) 20 (32.0) 0.87 [0.45–1.66]
Gynecology/Obstetrics 21 (58.0) 15 (42.0) 0.53 [0.24–1.14]
Psychiatry 12 (71.0) 5 (29.0) 0.89 [0.29–2.78]
Others 21 (72.0) 8 (28.0) 0.83 [0.33–2.04]
Total 368 (67.0) 181(33.0)  
Overall satisfaction towards Clinical pharmacy services in your setting*** Internal medicine 171 (75.0) 57 (25.0) 1.00
Pediatrics 74 (68.0) 35 (32.0) 0.66 [0.39–1.11]
Surgery 25 (68.0) 12 (32.0) 0.56 [0.25–1.24]
Emergency 21 (81.0) 5 (19.0) 1.26 [0.44–3.57]
Outpatient department 44 (70.0) 19 (30.0) 0.72 [0.37–1.40]
Gynecology/Obstetrics 16 (47.0) 18 (53.0) 0.24 [0.11–0.54]*
Psychiatry 12 (71.0) 5 (29.0) 0.66 [0.21–2.02]
Others 22 (76.0) 7 (24.0) 0.78 [0.30–1.99]
Total 385 (71.0) 158 (29.0)  
Clinical pharmacists provide information on alternative drug regimens Internal medicine 100 (80.0) 25 (20.0) 1.00
Pediatrics 41 (73.0) 15 (29.0) 0.641 [0.29–1.38]
Surgery 21 (87.5) 3 (12.5) 1.18 [0.31–4.48]
Emergency 5 (71.0) 2 (29.0) 0.50 [0.08–2.90]
Outpatient department 31 (77.5) 9 (22.5) 0.63 [0.24–1.62]
Gynecology/Obstetrics 18 (64.0) 10 (36.0) 0.32 [0.12–0.83]*
Psychiatry 4 (67.0) 2 (33.0) 0.33 [0.05–2.10]
Others 10 (91.0) 1 (9.0) 1.60 [0.19–14.62]
Total 230 (77.0) 67 (23.0)  
Clinical pharmacists advise about cost effective medication alternatives Internal medicine 99 (80.0) 25 (20.0) 1.00
Pediatrics 39 (70.0) 17 (30.0) 0.53 [0.25–1.14]
Surgery 17 (71.0) 7 (29.0) 0.36 [0.12–1.07]
Emergency 5 (71.0) 2 (29.0) 0.53 [0.09–3.08]
Outpatient department 30 (75.0) 10 (25.0) 0.46 [0.18–1.14]
Gynecology/Obstetrics 18 (64.0) 10 (36.0) 0.32 [0.12–0.82]*
Psychiatry 4 (67.0) 2 (33.0) 0.31 [0.48–2.05]
Others 8 (73.0) 3 (27.0) 0.35 [0.07–1.60]
Total 220 (74.0) 76 (26.0)  
Clinical pharmacists participate in dose adjustment for pediatrics and patients with impaired renal and/or liver function*** Internal medicine 95 (77.0 29 (23.0) 1.00
Pediatrics 38 (68.0) 18 (32.0) 0.62 [0.30–1.30]
Surgery 15 (62.5) 9 (37.5) 0.27 [0.09–0.79]*
Emergency 5 (71.0) 2 (29.0) 0.70 [0.12–4.08]
Outpatient department 28 (70.0) 12 (30.0) 0.43 [0.18–1.04]
Gynecology/Obstetrics 15 (54.0) 13 (46.0) 0.23 [0.09–0.60]*
Psychiatry 3 (50.0) 3 (50.0) 0.16 [0.02–1.05]
Others 9 (82.0) 2 (18.0) 0.68 [0.12–3.73]
Total 208 (70.0) 88 (30.0)  
Clinical pharmacists actively participate in bedside discussions to assist clinicians on therapeutic care plans and drug selection*** Internal medicine 88 (71.5) 35 (28.5) 1.00
Pediatrics 28 (50.0) 28 (50.0) 0.39 [0.20–0.78]*
Surgery 16 (67.0) 8 (33.0) 0.58 [0.21–1.58]
Emergency 3 (43.0) 4 (57.0) 0.28 [0.05–1.40]
Outpatient department 25 (62.5) 15 (37.5) 0.47 [0.21–1.06]
Gynecology/Obstetrics 16 (42.0) 12 (58.0) 0.41 [0.16–0.99]*
Psychiatry 3 (50.0) 3 (50.0) 0.26 [0.04–1.55]
Others 7 (64.0) 4 (36.0) 0.38 [0.09–1.49]
Total 186 (63.0) 109 (37.0)  
Clinical pharmacists participate in preventing, detecting and resolving any drug interactions Internal medicine 173 (75.0) 57 (25.0) 1.00
Pediatrics 77 (70.0) 33 (30.0) 0.74 [0.44–1.25]
Surgery 26 (68.0) 12 (32.0) 0.56 [0.26–1.23]
Emergency 20 (77.0) 6 (23.0) 0.97 [0.36–2.57]
Outpatient Department 45 (71.0) 18 (29.0) 0.71 [0.36–1.36]
Gynecology/Obstetrics 21 (58.0) 15 (42.0) 0.40 [0.19–0.87]*
Psychiatry 13 (76.0) 4 (24.0) 0.89 [0.27–2.90]
Others 20 (69.0) 9 (31.0) 0.53 [0.22–1.29]
Total 395(72.0) 154(28.0)  
Clinical pharmacists advise nurses on storage/handling of drugs Internal medicine 69 (62.0) 43 (38.0) 1.00
Pediatrics 36 (64.0) 20 (36.0) 1.02 [0.51–2.03]
Surgery 8 (57.0) 6 (43.0) 0.76 [0.24–2.39]
Emergency 12 (68.0) 6 (33.0) 1.24 [0.43–3.60]
Outpatient department 20 (83.0) 4 (17.0) 4.11 [1.14–14.76]*
Gynecology/Obstetrics 10 (83.0) 2 (17.0) 2.07 [0.40–10.69]
Psychiatry 5 (45.5) 6 (54.5) 0.55 [0.15–1.93]
Others 12 (66.7) 6 (33.3) 1.15 [0.39–3.38]
Total 172 (65.0) 93 (35.0)  
  1. Data was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression; * p < 0.05; *** Indicates the presence of non–response by respondents; The following other 16 items were found to be not significant. Clinical pharmacists are involved in drug preparation (reconstitution, reformulation, dilution); Clinical pharmacists assist nurses in managing drug infusion rates; Clinical pharmacists advise nurses on the compatibility of IV drug administration/admixture ; Clinical pharmacists document their services in patient care; Clinical pharmacists counsel patients regarding the safe and appropriate use of medications; Clinical pharmacists are involved in side effect prevention and management