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Table 4 Level of satisfaction of the health care providers on the roles of clinical pharmacists by work experience, September 2014

From: Attitude and satisfaction of health care providers towards clinical pharmacy services in Ethiopia: A post-deployment survey

Current Clinical Pharmacists’ Activities in their setting Years of work experience Satisfied; N (%) Not satisfied; N (%) AOR (95 % CI)
Clinical pharmacists provide timely information on drug availability*** <2 years 171 (44.0) 63 (43.4) 1.00
2–5 years 103 (26.5) 45 (31.0) 0.72 [0.42–1.25]
>5 years 115 (29.5) 37 (25.5) 0.50 [0.26–0.98]*
Total 389 (73.0) 145 (27.0)  
Clinical pharmacists provide information on appropriate route of administration <2 years 166 (43.0) 68 (47.5) 1.00
2–5 years 111 (28.0) 37 (26.0) 1.11 [0.63–1.94]
>5 years 114 (29.0) 38 (26.5) 0.64 [0.33–1.24]
Total 391 (73.0) 143 (27.0)  
Clinical pharmacists participate in preventing, detecting and resolving any drug interaction <2 years 164 (43.0) 70 (46.6) 1.00
2–5 years 106 (27.0) 42 (28.0) 0.83 [0.48–1.43]
>5 years 114 (30.0) 38 (25.3) 0.57 [0.29–1.11]
Total 384 (72.0) 150 (28.0)  
Clinical pharmacist involve in side effect prevention and management <2 years 167 (42.0) 67 (48.5) 1.00
2–5 years 109 (27.5) 39 (28.2) 0.92 [0.53–1.58]
>5 years 120 (30.3) 32 (23.2) 0.86 [0.43–1.70]
Total 396 (74.0) 138 (26.0)  
Clinical pharmacists counsel patients regarding the safe & appropriate use of medications <2 years 172 (43.0) 62 (46.3) 1.00
2–5 years 111 (28.0) 37 (27.6) 0.89 [0.51–1.55]
>5 years 116 (29.0) 35 (26.1) 0.61 [0.31–1.20]
Total 399 (75.0) 134 (25.0)  
Clinical pharmacists participate in dose calculation for patients <2 years 155 (42.0) 79 (50.0) 1.00
2–5 years 108 (29.0) 40 (25.3) 1.01 [0.59–1.73]
>5 years 113 (30.5) 39 (24.6) 0.68 [0.35–1.31]
Total 370 (70.0) 158 (30.0)  
Overall satisfaction towards Clinical pharmacy services in your setting <2 years 164 (44.0) 68 (44.4) 1.00
2–5 years 108 (29.0) 38 (24.8) 0.99 [0.58–1.72]
>5 years 103 (27.5) 47 (30.7) 0.57 [0.30–1.10]
Total 375 (71.0) 153 (29.0)  
Clinical pharmacists advise about cost effective medication alternatives*** <2 years 111 (52.0) 40 (54.7) 1.00
2–5 years 55 (26.0) 17 (23.3) 0.73 [0.33–1.58]
>5 years 48 (22.4) 16 (22.0) 0.24 [0.08–0.68]*
Total 214 (74.6) 73 (25.4)  
Clinical pharmacists provide information on alternative drug regimen <2 years 118 (52.5) 33 (52.4) 1.00
2–5 years 57 (25.3) 16 (25.4) 0.631 [0.284–1.402]
>5 years 50 (22.2) 14 (22.2) 0.268 [0.094–0.762]*
Total 225 (58) 63 (42)  
Clinical pharmacists actively participate in bed side discussions to assist clinicians on therapeutic care plan and drug selection <2 years 90 (50.0) 60 (57.0) 1.00
2–5 years 52 (29.0) 20 (19.0) 1.115 [0.550–2.259]
>5 years 39 (21.5) 25 (24.0) 0.359 [0.144–0.890]*
Total 181 (63.3) 105 (46.7)  
  1. Data was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression; * p < 0.05; *** Indicates the presence of non–response by respondents; The following other 10 items were found to be not only non–significant but also the satisfaction score was less than 70 %; Clinical pharmacists regularly present in the ward; Clinical pharmacists involve in drug preparation (reconstitution, reformulation, dilution); Clinical pharmacist counsel patients during discharge, Clinical pharmacists document their services in patient care; Clinical pharmacist identify and report adverse drug reaction; Clinical pharmacists participate in dose adjustment for pediatrics and patients with impaired renal and or liver function; Clinical pharmacists advice nurses on compatibility of IV drug administration/admixture; Clinical pharmacists advice nurses on storage/handling of drugs; Clinical pharmacists assist nurses in managing drug infusion rates; Clinical pharmacists actively participate in ward rounds with the health care team